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quæ est orationum Verrinarum actionis secundæ secunda. Edited by F. Creuzer and G. H. Moser. Göttingen, 8vo. 1847. (London: D. Nutt.)

The text of the speech of which a new edition is here presented to us, does not materially differ from that in the editions of Zumpt and Klotz; though every thing which has been published since the appearance of Zumpt's edition of the Verrince, and Klotz's edition of all Cicero's orations, and can throw light on the form and subject of this speech, has been carefully made use of. The merits of this edition, therefore, do not so much consist in a new critical constitution of the text, as in an accumulation of every thing that can contribute to arrive at a thorough understanding of the speech itself, and every thing connected with it. The volume opens with an introduction, giving an account of the life of C. Verres, (who is here at once and correctly called a member of the Cornelia gens,) and more especially of his fearful conduct in Sicily, of which he was prætor for three years, and the course of his subsequent trial. This introduction throws light not only upon the speech under consideration, but upon the whole proceedings against Verres. Next follows an analytical exposition of the subjects discussed in the speech, after which we come to the text itself, from p. 1 to 87. The remainder of the book, from p. 88 to 487, consists of a critical and explanatory commentary, extending to p. 410, and containing a digest of every thing that has ever been written to illustrate this speech. As far as quantity is concerned, there is certainly no ground for complaint, we might, on the contrary, wish for a little more condensation; but to any one who wishes to acquire a thorough and critical knowledge of the text, or seeks light for the numerous allusions to the history and condition of Sicily at the time, the commentary is invaluable. Those historical, antiquarian, and linguistic subjects which require more minute discussion, are treated of in twenty-one excursuses, each of which is a valuable dissertation by itself. The first of them treats of the leges et judicia repetundarum, and is a digest of a portion of Zumpt's excellent treatises De legibus judiciisque repetundarum in Republica Romana : some are extracts from other works, and others are original. The remaining pages from 477 to the end, contain a very complete grammatical and historical index; and for the better understanding of all geographical allusions, the volume is accompanied by a map of Sicily, and a plan of Syracuse. The introduction, commentary, and exercises, are written in German, which, to many scholars in this country, must be a drawback, which is to be regretted the more, as there is no other edition of this speech which contains so complete an apparatus of everything necessary for a right understanding of it.

3. M. TULLII CICERONIS DE RE PUBLICA Librorum Fragmenta. Recen

suit et adnotatione critica instruxit Fridericus Osannus. Gottingae. 8vo. 1817. (London, D. Nutt.)

The object which Professor Osann has proposed to himself in preparing a new edition of this interesting and important work, is to give to the world a more accurate text than any of his predecessors had been able to do, and at the same time religiously to preserve the orthography of the Vatican MS., which, in his opinion, differs very little from that followed by Cicero himself. In order to secure the first of these objects, Osann, who seems to have devoted a number of years to his task, has carefully weighed and considered all the labours of his predecessors, and especially of Cardinal A. Mai's second edition of the De Re Publica, from which the more important remarks are here reprinted, partly under the text, and partly in an appendix. From the parts which we have had an opportunity of examining, we have gained the conviction that the present edition must be ranked among the very best that we have of any ancient author. As far as the orthography is concerned, Osann follows the example of Wunder, Madvig, and Alschefski, endeavouring to restore as much as possible the orthography of the age of Cicero, which, he thinks, was scrupulously followed by the person who wrote the Vatican codex. The editor discusses this matter in an introductory chapter from p. 8 to 13. A second introductory chapter contains a discussion on the age of the Vatican codex, which Osann is inclined to assign to the fourth century of the Christian era. In a third introductory chapter, the writer speaks on certain points connected with the work De Re Publica, such as the time when it was written and published, to whom it was dedicated, and what were Cicero's objects in writing it. Then follows the text, with the notes at the bottom of the page, from p. 1 to p. 424. The notes are for the most part critical, and shew an xtensive knowledge of palæography, but now and then historical remarks are interspersed. One of the most valuable parts of the work are the twentytwo excursuscs appended at the end, from p. 428 to p. 502, most of which treat on points of orthography and grammar; the 19th is on the celebrated passage, Il. 22, where Cicero speaks of the number of centuries in the Servian constitution. There are few books from which so much valuable instruction can be gathered regarding the orthography and the inflections of the Latin language as from Osann's edition of Cicero de Re Publica; and we hope that this work will meet with that share of attention from English scholars which it so richly deserves.

4. MUSIC AND EDUCATION. By Dr. Mainzer. London,

Longman. 8vo. 1848. This excellent and eloquent little work, which deserves the most serious attention of every one engaged in education, does not, properly speaking, come within the range of books whose merits or demerits should be discussed in the Classical Museum ; but there are some portions of it which cannot fail to be of interest also to scholars. We allude to the fifth and sixth chapters, in which the author, in brief but graphic sketches, endeavours to shew in what estimation music was held by the ancients, and what place was assigned to it by them in education. We feel the more called upon to recommend to our readers a perusal of this work, because music has hitherto been almost entirely neglected in our great educational establishments, and thus an instrument has been strangely overlooked, which is more calculated than any other to create and cherish in the young a love for what is morally beautiful and noble. The author is not insensible to certain absurdities and abuses which are daily committed in musical eduçation; on the contrary, he openly combats them with satire and common sense, and points out the way in which the really desirable object may be attained.




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