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conjunctions, as they conjoin sentences; of adverbs, as they denote the attributes either of time or of place.
It may be particularly observed with respect to the word therefore, that it is an adverb, when without joining sentences, it only gives the sense of, for that reason. When it gives that sense and also connects, it is a conjunction; as, He is good, therefore he is happy. The same observation may be extended to the words consequently, accordingly, and the like. When these are subjoined to and, or to if, since, &c. they are adverbs, the connexion being made without their help; when they appear single and unsupported by any other connective, they may be called conjunctions.
It may be asked, what necessity is there for adverbs of time, when verbs are provided with tenses to show that circumstance? The answer is, though tenses may be sufficient to denote the greater distinctions of time, yet, to denote them all by the tenses would be a perplexity without end. What a variety of forms must be given to the verb, to denote yesterday, to-day, to-morrow, formerly, lately, just now, now, immediately, presently, soon, hereafter, &c. It was this consideration which made the adverbs of time necessary.
Prepositions serve to connect words with one another and show the relation between them. To show the relation between words, is to ex
press their situation with respect to each other; to show what connexion subsists between them; or what reference they have to one another; as, This is the house of my father. Here the preposition of expresses the relation between house and father. The relation which it expresses is that of property or possession. But prepositions much more frequently express the relation between verbs and nouns, than between two nouns; as, I am in health He sleeps in peace: They are greatly esteemed by their friends: He labours with diligence.
In all these examples, the preposition shows the relation, not between 'two objects, but between the being, state of being, or action, which the verb expresses, and the object which follows it; or, in other words, between the verb and the noun. It may be remarked that the preposition of, commonly shows the relation between two nouns or objects; all other prepositions do, in general, show the relation between a verb and a noun, or some word which supplies the place of a noun. Prepositions often seem to show the relation between two nouns or objects, when in fact they show the relation between an action and an object; as, I went from Boston to New-York. In this example, the preposition to might be thought to express the relation between the two nouns. But it in reality shows the relation between the verb went and the latter noun; as will be evident by changing the order of the sentence: From
Boston I went to New-York. It will be easily seen that there is no particular relation between the two places; but the relation is between the places and the act of going: I go from one, and I go to the other; and it is the relation which the act of going has to each place, which the prepositions are made to express. The relation which the act of going has to Boston, is altogether different from that which it has to New-York; and as the relations are entirely different, two prepositions, of an entirely opposite meaning, are made use of to express them. In regard to the former, the relation of the act to the place respects merely its relinquishment; in regard to the latter, its approximation.
The following is a list of the principal prep
Verbs are often compounded of a verb and preposition; as, To uphold, to invest, to overlook. This composition sometimes gives a new sense to the verb; as, To understand, to withdraw, to forgive.
One great use of prepositions in English, is to express those relations which in some languages are chiefly marked by cases, or the different endings of nouns. If we say, He writes
a pen; they ran the river; the tower fell the Greeks; there is observable in each of these expressions, either a total want of connexion, or a connexion which produces falsehood or nonsense; and it is evident, that before they can be turned into sense, the vacancy must be filled up by some connecting word; as. He writes with a pen; they ran towards the river; the tower fell upon the Greeks. We see by these instances, how prepositions may be necessary to connect those words, which in their signification are not naturally connected.
Prepositions, in their original and literal acceptation, seem to have denoted relations of place; but they are now used figuratively to express other relations.
The importance of the prepositions will be further perceived by the explanation of a few of them,
Of denotes possessión or belonging, an effect or consequence, and other relations connected with these; as, The house of my friend; that is, the house belonging to my friend: He died of a fever; that is.in consequence of a fever. To or unto is opposed to from; as, He rode from Salisbury to Winchester.
For indicates the cause or motive of any action or circumstance, &c. as, He loves her for (that is, on account of) her amiable qualities.
By is generally used with reference to the cause, agent, means, &c. as, He was killed by a fall; that is, a fall was the cause of his be
ng killed: This house was built by him; that s, he was the builder of it.
With denotes the act of accompanying, uniting, cas, We will go with you: They are on good erms with each other. With also alludes to he instrument or means; as, he was cut with a nife.
In relates to time, place, the state or maner of being or acting, &c. as, He was born in hat is, during), the year 1820 He dwells the city: She lives in affluence.
Into is used after verbs that imply motion of y kind; as, He retired into the country: Coper is converted into brass.
Within relates to something comprehended any place or time; as they are within the use: He began and finished his work within e limited time.
The signification of without is opposite to that within; as, She stands without the gate. But is more frequently opposed to with; as you ay go without me.
Prepositions are sometimes used as adverbs, d may be denominated such ; as, He passed by out twelve o'clock: They had their reward on after He dwells above. But if the nouns time and place be added, they then take the haracter of prepositions; as, He passed by his place: They had their reward soon after hat time.
Prepositions sometimes have the appearance nd effect of conjunctions; as, After he had aid this he dismissed the assembly: They made