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2. A Compound Inflection is the union of the rising and falling inflections, and is called the Rising Circumflex (marked) when it begins with the falling and ends with the rising slide; and the Falling Circumflex (marked ^) when it begins with the rising and ends with the falling slide.

3. Monotone.—When no inflection is used, and the words are repeated in an even tone, they are said to be uttered in a monotone (marked o), which means one tone or the same tone.

Whenever any inflection is used, a positive, complete assertion takes the falling inflection (simple or compound), and all other ideas take the rising inflection.

I have read my lesson!
I will not do this again!
Will you go'? No!.
Do wrong', and you will not be happy.

When a question that can be answered by yes or no is asked simply for information, it contains no assertion, and, therefore, always requires the rising inflection. And the answers to direct questions always have the falling inflection if they simply give the information asked for.

But direct questions and the replies may contain a positive assertion, and, therefore, have the falling inflection.

Are you going now'? No!

If this question was not answered at first, and was repeated, it might be given : “ Are you going now?” because it contains an assertion that it has been asked before. In full, it would read, “I have asked you once, and want you to say


you are going now!” Still, the answer, expressing positive assertion, might be, “No'.” But if one were a little doubtful about going just at this time, the answer might show this by the emphasis of time and the rising (or circumflex) inflection : "N-o'."

They have mouths',—but they speak not\:
Eyes have they',—but they see not":
They have ears',—but they hear not'.

“They have mouths'," would be a direct complete assertion, but the rising inflection given in the exercise shows that it is incomplete as used, and is to be followed by something else.

The same is true of such sentences as “Will you walk' or ride'?” “Will you take tea or coffee'?” The rising inflection on ride and coffee changes the meaning and makes the two sentences direct questions:

Will you ride' or walk'? Will you take tea or coffee' ?

Sink' or swim', live or die', survive' or perish', I give my heart and my hand to this vote!

Sink' or swim', live or die'," like “ Will you ride' or walk', contains an assertion that one of the two will be done, and, therefore, takes the falling inflection on the last word. The expression



I shall either sink or swim. I shall either live or die. I am willing to risk either on this vote.

My father, sir, did never stoop so low

He was a gentleman, I'd have you know. The assertion in the last line ends in gentleman, which therefore has the falling inflection. The sentence really reads I'd have you know that he was a gentleman.

This shows the reason for reading “ I'd have you know" without special inflection.

PAUSES. There are two kinds of pauses—the GRAMMATICAL PAUSE and the RHETORICAL PAUSE.

1. Grammatical Pauses (punctuation marks) are used to show the grammatical formation of the matter, so as to make




the meaning clear. No attention should be paid to them in reading aloud, further than as they help to give the reader the meaning of the piece he is reading.

2. The Rhetorical (or reading) Pause (or || is a suspension of the speaking voice to give exactness or emphasis to the ideas as read.

Add to your faith' | virtuel ; || and to virtue' | knowledge' ; || and to knowledge' | temperance; || and to temperance' | patience!

When grammatical pauses are properly inserted, it will be found that each of them, except the comma, has a corresponding rhetorical pause, while there are many rhetorical pauses not indicated by the punctuation. The comma, however, is often neglected in reading.

Oh, the grave', | the grave. || It buries every error, I covers every defect, | extinguishes every resentment.

No, sir! | no, sir! | There can never | again | be peace between us.

In these extracts three commas have no corresponding reading pauses, and the exclamation points have pauses varying greatly in length. Slight rhetorical pause can also be made after buries, covers, extinguishes, unless the entire sentence is read in a prolonged monotone.


Emphasis is the mode of calling special attention to one or more ideas in a sentence, as being more important than the rest.

Emphasis is given by speaking the words representing the more important ideas louder or softer (force), faster or slower (time), in a higher or a lower tone (pitch or key), with smoother or harsher tone (quality), with longer or shorter pauses before or after them, and by inflection.

A syllable is called long or short in relation to the time taken to utter it (quantity). Accent is force given to a syllable of a word.

1. Emphasis by Force.—You are sitting at the window and see a dog in the yard. You say, “ There is a dog in the yard.” A cow gets into your flower garden. You say, “ Mother, there's a cow in the flower garden.” You see flames bursting from the barn, and cry out, “FIRE! FIRE! the BARN's afire.” Your sister dies, and you say to a playmate who calls to inquire, “She is dead,and the lower tone with which you utter the last word makes it emphatic.

The dog was the thing out of place in the first illustration. You said so by speaking the word "dog" louder than the rest of the sentence. You wished to give more emphasis to “ COW than to “dog," and therefore spoke it louder; while you almost shouted "fire,” to give it the greatest emphasis. The more you vary from your natural force, the greater the emphasis given to the idea.

Did he ride to town to-day? No; he went yesterday.
Did he ride to town to-day? No; he rode to the shore.
Did he ride to town to-day? No; he walked to town.
Did he ride to town to-day? No; she went in his place.
Did he ride to town to-day? Yes, he did; he would go.
King Agrippa, believest thou the prophets ? I know that thou believest.
A good name is rather to be chosen than great riches.

you touch fire, you will be burned. If you touch pitch, you will be defiled. If

you have bad associates, your character will be stained. You can succeed if you think so and try. Man is the only animal that makes bargains. Reading maketh a full man. Writing maketh an exact man. Speaking maketh a ready man. The war is inevitable, and LET IT COME. I repeat it, sir, LET IT COME.

Treason! cried the Speaker. Treason ! TREASON! TREASON! re-echoed from every part of the House.

The ends I aim at shall be my COUNTRY's, my God's, and TRUTH's.

Our motto shall be, Our country, OUR WHOLE COUNTRY, and NOTHING BUT OUR COUNTRY.

Dear, gentle, patient, noble Nell was DEAD.

In order to know what to emphasize, you must understand the piece to be read. Every new important idea is emphasized. The degree and kind of emphasis depend on the idea and the degree of importance given to it.

Unless additional emphasis is desired, the repetition of an idea is not emphasized. In the above illustrations "FIRE, FIRE" and “TREASON, TREASON are used as single expressions.

2. Emphasis by Time.—Emphasis is sometimes given to a word or an expression by speaking it more slowly or more rapidly than the rest of the sentence, or by stopping before or after it. This calls special attention to it, in many cases more than mere force could.

O-h, d-e-a-r! How hot it is !
Run for the doctor! Run for the doctor! Mary has hurt her arm.
We find him-guilty-of murder—in the first degree.

3. Emphasis of Pitch.—Emphasis is often given by using a higher or à lower pitch than usual.

Silence how dead, and darkness how profound.

Strike-till the last armed foe expires !
Strike—for your altars and your fires !
Strike-for the green graves of your sires,

God-and your native land !

Read the second line louder and in a higher tone than the first, the third louder and in a higher tone than the second, and the fourth in a lower key than the other three lines, but as loud as either.

4. Emphasis of Quality. The tone may be sharp and shrill, round and full, clear and smooth, aspirated or guttural. Any change of quality adds emphasis.

If there's anything in the world I hate—and you know it—it is asking you for money. I am sure, for myself, I'd rather go without a thousand times.

I hate him! I loathe him! I abhor him! but I fear him more.

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