« السابقةمتابعة »
Vicesimo Quinto Die Martij Anno Regni Dom- soe long as she shalbe marryed & Covert Baron but ini nostri Jacobi nunc Rex Anglie &c. Deci- my will ys that she shall have the consideracion mo quarto & Scotie xlixo Annoq; Domini yearlie paied vnto her during her lief & after her 1616.
deceas the saied stock and consideracion to bee
paied to her children if she have Anie & if not to T. Wmj Shackspeare
her executours or assignes she lyving the saied In the name of god Amen I William Shack terme after my deceas Provided that if such husspeare of Stratford vpon Avon in the countie of bond as she shall att thend of the saied three yeares warr gent in perfect health & memorie god be be marryed vnto or attaine after doe sufficientlie praysed doe make & Ordayne this my last will & Assure ynto her & thissue of her bodie landes testament in manner & forme followeing That ys to Answereable to the porcion by this my will gyven saye First I Comend my Soule into the handes vnto her & to be adiudged soe by my executours & of god my Creator hoping & assuredlie beleeving overseers then my will ys that the saied Cl' shalbe through thonelie merites of Jesus Christe my Sa- paied to such husbond as shall make such assurance viour to be made partaker of lyfe everlastinge. I to his owne vse Item I gyve & bequeath vnto my And my bodye to the Earth whereof yt ys made saied sister Ione xxli & all my wearing Apparrell to be Item I Gyve & bequeath vnto my Daughter Judyth paied & deliuered within one yeare after my Deceas One hundred & Fyftie poundes of lawfull English And I doe will & devise vnto her the house with money to be paied vnto her in manner & forme thappurtenances in Stratford wherein she dwelleth followeing That ys to saye One hundred pounds in for her natural lief vnder the yearlie Rent of xiid discharge of her marriage porcion within one yeare Item I gyve & bequeath vnto her three sonns Wilafter my deceas with consideracion after the Rate of liam Harte Hart & Michaell Harte Fyve twoe Shillinges in the pound for soe long tyme as Poundes A peece to be paied within one Yeare after the same shalbe vnpaied vnto her after my deceas my deceas her Item I gyve & bequeath unto the & the Fyftie poundes Residewe thereof vpon her saied Elizabeth Hall All my Plate (except my brod Surrendring of or gyving of such sufficient Securitie silver & gilt bole) that I now have att the Date of as the overseers of this my Will shall like of to Sur: this my will Item I gyve & bequeath ynto the Poore render or graunte All her estate & Right that shall of Stratford aforesaied tenn poundes to Mr Thomas discend or come vnto her after my deceas or that Combe my Sword to Thomas Russell Esquier Fyve shee nowe hath of in or to one Copiehold tenemente with thappurtenances lyeing & being in Stratford poundes & to Frauncis Collins of the Borough of
warr in the countie of warr gentleman thirteene vpon Avon aforesaied in the saied countie of warr poundes Sixe shillinges & Eight pence to be paied being parcell or holden of the mannour of Rowington within one Yeare after my Deceas Item I gyve & vnto my Daughter Susanna Hall & her heires for bequeath to Hamlett Sadler xxvio viij' to buy him ever Item I Gyve & bequeath vnto my saied Daugh. A Ringe to William Raynoldes gent xxvjø viijd to ter Judith One hundred and Fyftie Poundes more if buy him a Ringe to my godson William Walker xx* shee or Anie issue of her bodie be Lyving att ihend in gold to Anthonye Nashe gent xxvje viijd & to Mr of three yeares next ensueing the Daie of the Date John Nashe xxvjs viijd & to my Fellowes John of this my Will during which tyme my executours to Hemynges Richard Burbage & Henry Cundell xxvje paie her consideracion from my deceas according to viij A peece to buy them Ringes Item I Gyve will the Rate aforesaied And if she dye within the saied bequeath & devise vnto my Daughter Susanna Hall terme without issue of her bodye then my will ys & for better enabling of her to performe this my will I Doe gyve & bequeath One Hundred Poundes & towardes the performans thereof All that Capitail thereof to my Neece Elizabeth Hall & the Fiftie
messuage or tenemente with thappurtenances in Poundes to be sett fourth by my executours during Stratford aforesaid Called the new place wherein I the lief of my Sister Johane Harte & the vse and nowe Dwell & two Messuages or tenementes with profitt thereof Cominge shalbe payed to my saied thappurtenances scituate lyeing & being in Henley Sister Ione & after her deceas the saied I' shall streete within the borough of Stratford aforesaied Remaine Amongst the children of my saied Sister And all my barnes stables Orchardes gardens landes Equallie to be Devided Amongst them But if my tenementes & hereditamentes whatsoeuer scituat lyesaied Daughter Judith be lyving att thend of the ing & being or to be had Receyved perceyved or tasaied three Yeares or anie yssue of her bodye then ken within the townes Hamletes Villages Fieldes & my will ys & soe I Devise & bequeath the saied groundes of Stratford vpon Avon Oldstratford BushopHundred and Fyftie Poundes to be sett out by my ton & Welcombe or in anie of them in the said counexecutours & overseers for the best benefitt of her tie of warr And alsoe All that messuage or tenemente & her issue & the stock not to be paied vnto her with thappurtenances wherein One John Robinson
dwelleth scituat lyeing & being in the black friers in * The following is from an exact transcript of the original London nere the Wardrobe & all other my landes teneWill deposited in the Prerogative office, London, the only ments & hereditamentes whatsoeuer To have & to diference being that we have not thought it necessary to hold All & singuler the saied premisses with their spects, even to the misemployment of capital letters, and the appartenances vnto the saied Susanna Hall for & orniasion of points our copy is most faithful.
during the terme of her naturall lief & after her D
deceas to the first sonne of her bodie lawfullie yssue wief my second best bed with the furniture Item I ing & to the heires Males of the bodie of the saied gyve & bequeath to my saied Daughter Judith my first Sonne lawfullie yssueing & for defalt of such broad silver gilt bole All the rest of my goodes issue to the second Sonne of her bodie lawfullie Chattel Leases plate Jewels & household stuffe issueinge & to the heires males of the bodie of the whatsoeuer after my Dettes and Legasier paied & saied Second Sonne lawfullie yssueinge and for de my funerall expences discharged I gyve devise and fult of such heires to the third Sonne of the bodie bequeath to my Sonne in Lawe John Hall gent & of the saied Susanna Lawfullie yssueing & of the my Daughter Susanna his wief whom I ordaine & heires males of the bodie of the saied third sonne make executours of this my Last will and testament lawfullie yssueing And for defalt of such issue the And I doe intreat & Appoint the saied Thomas Russame soe to be & Remaine to the Fourth Fyfth sixte sell Esquier & Frauncis Collins gent to be overseers & Seaventh sonnes of her bodie lawfullie issueing hereof And doe Revoke All former wills & publishe one after Another & to the heires Males of the this to be my last will and testament In Witness bodies of the saied Fourth fifth Sixte and Seaventh whereof I have herevnto put my hand the Daie & sonnes lawfullie yssueing in such manner as yt ys Yeare first aboue written. before Lymitted to be & Remaine to the first second
“By me William Shakspeore. & third Sonns of her bodie & to their heires Males Witnes to the publishing And for defult of such issue the saied premisses to hereof Fra: Collyng Probatum corā Magr. Willim be & Remaine to my sayed Neece Hall & the heires Julyus Shawe
Byrde Dcorē Comiss, &c. xxdo die
mensis Junij Anno Dni 1616 Males of her bodie lawfullie yssueing & for defalt Jobn Robinson
Juramto Johannis Hall vnius of such issue to my Daughter Judith & the heires Robert Whattcott ex &c Cui &c De bene &c Jurat Males of her body lawfullie issueinge And for defalt
Resvnt plate &c. Susanne Hall of such issue to the Right heires of me the saied
alt ex &c cũ veñit &c petitur William Shackspeare for ever Item I gyve ynto my
rently trifling circumstance, pointed out by Farmer;
viz., that in "The Merchant of Venice," written 1“ The Tempest" was first printed in the follo edition of before 1598, the name of Stephano is invariably "Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, and pronounced with the accent on the second syllable, Tragedies." bearing date in 1623, where it stands first, while in “ The Tempest," the proper pronunciation sive. It fills the same place in the folios of 1632, 1664, and is as constantly required by the verse. It seems 1685.)
certain, therefore, that Shakespeare found his error
in the interval, and he may have learnt it from Ben A MATERIAL fact, in reference to the date of the Jonson's “Every Man in his Humor," in which first production of “The Tempest," has only been Shakespeare performed, and in the original list of recently ascertained: we allude to the notice of the characters to which, in the edition of 1601, the performance of it, before King James, on November names not only of Stephano, but of Prospero occur. i, 1611, (the earliest date previously discovered for We cannot agree with the Rev. Mr. Hunter, (in its performance being 1613,) which is contained in his “Disquisition on the Tempest,") in thinking the “Extracts from the Accounts of the Revels nt that he has established, that nothing was suggested Court," edited by Mr. P. Cunningham for the to Shakespeare by the storm, in July, 1609, which Shakespeare Society: the memorandum is in the dispersed the fleet under Sir George Somers and following form:
Sir Thomas Gates, of which an account was pub"Hallomas nyght was presented att Whithall before the lished by a person of the name of Jourdan in the Kinges Majestie a play called the Tempest." following year. This point was, to our mind, sat
isfactorily made out by Malone, and the mention of In the margin is inserted the additional circum- “the still-vexed Bermoothes" by Shakespeare seems stance, that the performance was "by the King's directly to connect the drama with Jourdan's “DisPlayers ;" and there can be no reasonable doubt covery of the Bermudas, otherwise called the Isle that it was Shakespeare's drama, which had been of Devils," printed in 1610. written for that company. When it had been so No novel, in prose or verse, to which Shakespeare written, is still a point of difficulty; but the proba- resorted for the incidents of“ The Tempest," has yet bility, we think, is that it was selected by the Mas- been discovered. We have turned over the pages ter of the Revels, for representation at Court in of, we believe, every Italian novelist, anterior to the 1611, on account of its novelty and popularity on age of Shakespeare, in hopes of finding some story the public stage. Eleven other dramas, as appears containing traces of the incidents of "The Temby the same document, were exhibited between pest," but without success. The ballad entitled October 31, 1611, and the same day in the next « The Inchanted Island," printed in "Farther year; and it is remarkable that ten of these (as far Particulars regarding Shakespeare and his Works," as we possess any information respecting them) is a more modern production than the play, from were comparatively new plays, and with regard to which it varies in ihe names, as well as in some the eleventh, it was not more than three years old. points of the story, as if for the purpose of concealWe may, perhaps, be warranted in inferring, there. ing its connection with a production which was popfore, that * The Tempest" was also not then an oldular on the stage. Our opinion decidedly is, that it play.
was founded upon “The Tempest," and not upon It seems to us, likewise, that the internal evi- any ancient narrative to which Shakespeare also dence, derived from style and language, clearly in- might have been indebted. dicates that it was a late production, and that it Coleridge tells us (Lit. Rem.) that "" The Tembelongs to about the same period of our great pest' is a species of drama, which owes no alledramatist's literary history as his “Winter's Tale," giance to time or space, and in which, therefore, which was also chosen for a Court-play, and repre- errors of chronology and geography-no mortal sins sented at Whitehall only four days after “The in any species-are venial faults, and count for nothTempest" had been exhibited. In point of con- ing: it addresses itself entirely to the imaginative struction, it must be admitted at once that there is faculty." This opinion was delivered in 1818; the most obvious dissimilarity, inasmuch as "The and three years earlier Coleridge had spoken of Winter's Tale" is a piece in which the unities are "The Tempest," as certainly one of Shakespeare's utterly disregarded, while in “The Tempest" they latest works, judging from the language only: are strictly observed. is only in the involved Schlegel was of the same opinion, without, howand parenthetical character of some of the speeches, ever, assigning any distinct reason, and instituted and in psychological resemblances, that we would a comparison between "The Tempest" and " Midinstitute a comparison between “The Tempest" summer Night's Dream," adding, “The preponderand the “Winter's Tale," and would infer from ance of thought in "The Tempest,' exhibited in its thence that they belong to about the same period. profound and original characterization, strikes us at
It may be urged, however, that what was repre- once; but we must also admire the deep sense of sented at Court in 1611 was only a revival of an the art (tiefsinnige Kunst) which is apparent in the older play, acted before 1596, and such may have structure of the whole, in the wise economy of its been the case: we do not, however, think it prob- means, and in the skill with which the scaffolding ablc, for several reasons. One of these is an appa- | is raised to sustain the marvellous aerial structure.'
both instances for a bookseller of the name of Arthur
Johnson: Arthur Johnson acquired the right to pubTWO GENTLEMEN OF VERONA. lish it from John Busby, and ihe original entry, and (“The Two Gentlemen of Verona" was first printed in the the assignment of the play, run thus in the Registers folio of 1623, where it occupies nineteen pnges, viz., from of the Stationers' Company :p. 20 to p. 38, inclusive, in the division of "Comedies." It is there divided into Acts and Scenes. It also stands sec
“18 Jan. 1601. John Busby) An excellent and plensant ond in the later folios.)
conceited commedie of Sir John Faulstof, and the
Merry wyves of Windesor. The only ascertained fact with which we are ac
"Arth, Johnson By assignment from Jno. Busbye quainted, in reference to “The Two Gentlemen of a. B. An excellent and plensant conceited comedie Verona,' is, that it is included in the list of Shake of Sir John Faulstafe, and the merry wyves of
Windsor." speare's Plays which Francis Meres furnished in his Palladis Tamia, 1598. It comes first in that enu January, 1601, according to our present mode of meration, and although this is a very slight circum- reckoning the year, was January, 1602, and the stance, it may afford some confirmation to the opinion, most pleasaunt and excellent conceited comedie founded upon internal evidence of plot, style, and of Syr John Falstuffe, and the merrie Wives of characters, that it was one of the earliest, if not the Windsor,” (the title-page following the description very earliest of Shakespeare's original dramatic com- in the entry) appeared in quarto with the date of positions.
1602. It has been the custom to look upon this It would, we think, be idle to attempt to fix upon edition as the first sketch of the drama, which any particular year: it is unquestionably the work of Shakespeare afterwards enlarged and improved to a young and unpractised dramatist, and the conclu- the form in which it appears in the folio of 1623. sion is especially inartificial and abrupt. It may After the most minute examination, we are not of have been written by our great dramatist very soon that opinion: it has been universally admitted that after he joined a theatrical company; and at all the 4to. of 1602 was piratical; and our conviction events we do not think it likely that it was com is that, like the first edition of “ Henry V." in 1600, posed subsequently to 1591. We should be inclined it was fraudulently made up, for the purpose of sale, to place it, as indeed it stands in the work of Meres, partly from notes taken at the theatre, and partly immediately before "Love's Labor's Lost." Meres from memory, without even the assistance of any calls it the "Gentlemen of Verona."
of the parts as delivered out by the copyist of the If“ The Two Gentlemen of Verona" were not the theatre to the actors. It is to be observed, that offspring merely of the author's invention, we have John Busby, who assigned “The Merry Wives of yet to discover the source of its plot. Points of re- Windsor" to Arthur Johnson in 1602, was the same semblance bave been dwelt upon in connection with bookseller who, two years before, had joined in the Sir Philip Sidney's “Arcadia," 1590, and the publication of the undoubtedly surreptitious “Hen“ Diana" of Montemayor, which was not translated into English by B. Yonge until 1598; but the in The title-page states, that it had been acted " by cidents, common to the drama and to these two the Lord Chamberlain's servants" before the Queen works, are only such as might be found in other ro-" and elsewhere:" "elsewhere," was perhaps at mances, or would present themselves spontaneously the Globe on the Bankside, and we may suppose, to the mind of a young poet. The notion of some that it had been brought out in the commencement critics, that “ The Two Gentlemen of Verona" con of the summer season of 1600, before the death of tains few or no marks of Shakespeare's hand, is a Sir Thomas Lucy. If the “dozen white luces" in strong proof of their incompetence to form a judg- the first scene were meant to ridicule him, Shakement.
speare would certainly not have introduced the allusion after the death of the object of it. That it continued a favorite play we can readily believe,
and we learn that it was acted before James I., not THE
long after he came to the throne : the following
memorandum is contained in the accounts of the MERRY WIVES OF'WINDSOR.
"Revels at Court" in the latter end of 1604:("A Most plensnunt and excellent conceited Comedie, of
" By his Majestie's plaiers. The Sunday followinge A Syr Iohn Fulstatte, and the merrie Wiues of Windsor.
Play of the Merry Wiues of Winsor. Entermixed with sundrie variable and pleasing humors, of Syr Hugh the Welch knight, Iustice shallow, and his This representation occurred on " the Sunday folwise Cousin M. Slender. With the swaggering vaine of lowing' November 1st, 1604. Auncient Pistoll, and Corporn! Nym. By William Shakespeare. As it hath bene diuers times Acted by the right
What has led some to imagine that the surreptiHonorable my Lord Chamberlaines seruants. Both be tious impression of 1602 was the comedy as it first fore her Maiestie, and elsewhere. London Printed by T. came from the hands of Shakespeare, is a tradition C. for Arthur Johnson, and are to be sold at his shop in Powles Church-yard, at the signe of the Flower de Leuse respecting the rapidity with which it was composed. and the Crowne. 1602." 4to. 27 leaves.
This tradition, when traced to its source, can be car"A Most pleasant and excellent conceited Comedie, of ried back no farther than 1702: John Dennis in Sir loban Fulstaffe, and the Merry Wines of Windsor. that year printed his “Comical Gallunt,” founded With the swaggering vnine of Ancient Pistoll, and Cor. upon" The Merry Wives of Windsor," and in the porall Nym. Written by W. Shakspeare. Printed for dedication he states, that "the comedy was written Arthur Johnson, 1619." 4to. 28 leaves. The 4to. of 1630, was * printed by T. H. for R. Meighen." at the command of Queen Elizabeth, and by her &c. In the folio, 162 - The Merry Wines of Windsor" direction ; anil she was so eager to see it acted, occupies twenty-two pages, viz., from p. 39 to p. 60 inclu. that she commanded it to be finished in fourteen eive, in the division of Comedies.” It also stands third days." Dennis gives no authority for any part of in the three later folios.)
this assertion, but because he knew Dryden, it is This comedy was printed for the first time in a supposed to have come from bim; and because perfect state in the folio of 1623: it had come out Dryden was acquainted with Daveunnt, it hias been in an imperfect state in 1602, and again in 1619, in conjectured that the latter might have communi
cated it to the former. We own that we place have necessarily occasioned corresponding states of little or no reliance on the story.
feeling, and employment of language. It has been a disputed question in what part of As to the date when “Measure for Measure" was the series of dranias in which Falstaff is introduced, written, we have no positive information, but we now "The Merry Wives of Windsor" ought to be read: know that it was acted at Court on St. Stephen's Johnson thought it came in between “ Henry IV.," night, (26th December,) 1604. part ii., and “ Henry V. ;" Malone, on the other In the column of the account headed "The Poets hand, argued that it should be placed between the which mayd the Plaies," we find the name of two parts of “ Henry IV.;" but the truth is, that al-Shaxberd" entered, which was the mode in which most insuperable difficulties present themselves to the ignorant scribe, who prepared the account, spelt either hypothesis, and we doubt much whether the the name of our great dramatist. Malone conjecone or the other is well founded. Shakespeare, tured from certain allusions (such as to "the war" having for some reason been induced to represent with Spain, “the sweat,” meaning the plague, &c.), Falstaff in love, considered by what persons he that "Measaire for Measure" was written in 1603 ; might be immediately surrounded, and Bardolph, and if we suppose it to have been selected for perPistol, Nym, and Mrs. Quickly, naturally presented formance at Court on the 26th December, 1604, on themselves to his mind: he was aware that the account of its popularity at the theatre after its proaudience, with whom they had been favorite charac- duction, his supposition will receive some confirmaters, would expect them still to be Falstaff's com- tion. panions; and though Shakespeare had in fact of “Measure for Measure," Coleridge observes hanged two of them in " Henry V.," and Mrs. in his “ Literary Remains :" "This play, which is Quickly had died, he might trust to the forgetful Shakespeare's throughout
, is to me the most painful, ness of those before whom the comedy was to be say rather, the only painful part of his genuine works. represented, and care little for the consideration, The comic and tragic parts equally border on the since so eagerly debated, in what part of the series prontsov--the one being disgusting, the other horri“ The Merry Wives of Windsor" ought to be read. ble; and the pardon and marriage of Angelo not
With regard to the supposed sources of the plot, merely baffles the strong indignant claim of justice our opinion is, that the true original of the story (if (for cruelty, with lust and damnable baseness, can Shakespeare did not himself invent the incidents) not be forgiven, because we cannot conceive them has not come down to us.
as being morally repented of), but it is likewise degrading to the character of woman."
MEASURE FOR MEASURE.
THE COMEDY OF ERRORS. "Measure for Measure" was first printed in the folio of * Mr. William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories, & Tra (" The Comedie of Errors" was first printed in the folio of gedies," 1623, where it occupies twenty-four pages, viz.,
1623. where it occupies sixteen pnges, viz., from p. 85 to from p. 61 to p. 84, inclusive, in the division of * Come
p. 100, inclusive, in the division of “Comedies." It was di-s." It was, of course, reprinted in the later folios of reprinted in the three subsequent impressions of the same 1632, 1664, and 1685.)
volume.) In the “ History of English Dramatic Poetry," We have distinct evidence of the existence of an III., 68, it is remarked, that " although it seems old play called “The Historie of Error," which was clear that Shakespeare kept Whetstone's 'Promos acted at Hampton Court, on New-Year's night, and Cassandra' in his eye, while writing ‘Measure 1576-7. The same play, in all probability, was for Measure, it is probable that he also made use repeated at Windsor on Twelfth-night, 1582-3, of some other dramatic composition or novel, in though, in the accounts of the Master of the Revels, which the same story was treated." I was led to it is called, "The Historie of Ferrar," the clerk form this opinion from the constant habit of drama who prepared the account probably writing the title tists of that period to employ the productions of by his ear. Thus we see that, shortly before Shaketheir predecessors, and from the extreme likelihood, speare is supposed to have come to London, a play that when our old play-writers were hunting in all was in course of performance upon which his own directions for stories which they could convert to "Comedy of Errors" might be founded. “The their purpose, they would not have passed over the Historie of Error" was, probably, an early adapta novel by Giraldi Cinthio, which had not only been tion of the Menæchmi of Plautus, of which a free translated, but actually converted into a drama translation was published in 1595. nearly a quarter of a century before the death of
Ritson was of opinion, " that Shakespeare was Elizabeth." Whetstone's " Promos and Cassandra," not under the slightest obligation" to the translation a play in two parts, was printed in 1578, though, as of the Menachmi, by W. W., supposed, by Ant. far as we know, never acted, and he subsequently Wood, to be W. Warner; and most likely Ritson introduced a translation of the novel (which he ad- was right, not from want of resemblance, but bemitted to be its origin), in his “Heptameron of cause The Comedy of Errors" was, in all probaCivil Discourses.” 4to. 1582.
bility, anterior in point of date, and because ShakeThe Title of Cinthio's novel, the fifth of the eighth speare may have availed himself of the old drama Decad of his Hecatommithi, gives a sufficient ac- which, as has been noticed, was performed at court count of the progress of the story as he relates it. in 1676-7, and in 1582-3. That court-drama, Whetstone adopts its incidents pretty exactly in his we may infer, had its origin in Plautus; and it was, " Promos and Cassandra ;" but Shakespeare varies perhaps, the popularity of Shakespeare's "Comedy from them chiefly by the introduction of Mariana, of Errors" which induced Creede to print Warner's and by the final union between the duke and Isabella version of the Men@chmi in 1595. Shakespeare was not indebted to Whetstone for a Sir W. Blackstone entertained the belief, from single thought, nor for a casual expression, except the “long hobbling verses" in the “Comedy of ing as far as similarity of situation may be suid to Errors," ihat it was “among Shakespeare's more