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as brought on fighting among the boys: in his aftertime a very great courage remained, whereof many inftances might be fet down; yet he had perfectly subdued all inclination to quarrelling, but a negligence of his clothes did always continue with him. For his book, he minded it not; and his father had little hope of fuccefs in the profes fion of a scholar, to which he had defigned him. Nay, there was then fo little appearance of that comfort which his father afterward received from him, that he often folemnly wished, that if it pleased God to take away any of his children, it might be his fon Ifaac: fo vain a thing is man's judgment, and our providence unfit to guide our own affairs.

Removing thence to Felfted in Effex, he quickly made fo great a progress in learning and all things praiseworthy, that his master appointed him a little tutor to the Lord Viscount Fairfax of Emely in Ireland. While he stayed here he was admitted in Peter-house, his uncle the Bifhop's College; but when he removed to (and was fit for) the University of Cambridge, Feb. 1645, he was planted in Trinity College. His condition was very low, his father having fuffered much in his estate on account of adhering to the King's caufe; and being gone away from London to Oxford, his chief fupport at firft was from the liberality of the famous and reverend Dr. Hammond, to whose memory he paid his thanks in an excellent Epitaph, (among his Poems,) wherein he describes the Doctor and himself too; for the most, and most noble parts of the character do exactly agree to them both. Being now, as it were, without relations, he abused not the opportunity to negligence in his ftudies, or licentioufnefs in his manners, but seasoned his tender years with the principles and the exercife of diligence, learning, and piety, the best preparatives for the fucceeding varieties of life.

The young man continued such a royalift, that he would never take the Covenant; yet carrying himself with fair

ness, candour, and prudence, he gained the good-will of the chief governors of the Univerfity. One day Dr. Hill, Master of the College, laying his hand on his head, said, Thou art a good lad; 'tis pity thou art a Cavalier: and when in an Oration on the Gunpowder-Treafon he had fo celebrated the former times, as to reflect much on the prefent, fome Fellows were provoked to move for his expulfion; but the Master filenced them with this; Barrow is a better man than any of us. Afterward, when the Engagement was imposed, he fubfcribed it; but upon second thoughts, repenting of what he had done, he went back to the commiffioners, and declared his diffatisfaction, and got his name rased out of the list.

For the juniors, he was always ready to give them his help, and very freely; though for all the exercises he made for them in verse and profe he never received any recompense but one pair of gloves.

While he was yet a young scholar, his judgment was too great to rest satisfied with the shallow and fuperficial phyfiology then commonly taught and received in the Universities, wherewith ftudents of meaner abilities contentedly took up: but he applied himself to the reading and confidering the writings of the Lord Verulam, Monfieur Descartes, Galileo, and other the great wits of the laft age, who seemed to offer fomething more folid and fubftantial.

When the time came that he could be chofen Fellow of his College, ann. Dom. 1649, he obtained by his merit; nothing else could recommend him who was accounted of the contrary party. After his election, finding the times not favourable to men of his opinion in the affairs of Church and State, to qualify him (as he then thought) to do most good, he defigned the profeffion of phyfic, and for fome years bent his ftudies that way, and particularly made a great progress in the knowledge of anatomy, botanics, and chemistry. But afterward, upon

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deliberation with himself, and conference with his uncle, the late Lord Bishop of St. Asaph, thinking that profeffion not well confiftent with the oath he had taken when admitted Fellow, to make divinity the end of his ftudies, he quitted medicine, and applied himself chiefly to what his oath seemed to oblige him.

He was upon all opportunities fo open and communicative, that many of his friends in that College (for out of it he had few acquaintance) can, and I hope fome one will, report frequent inftances of his calm temper in a factious time, his large charity in a mean eftate, his facetious talk upon fit occafions, his indefatigable industry in various ftudies, his clear judgment on all arguments, his steady virtue in all difficulties, which they must often have obferved, and can better describe.

Of his way of discourse I shall here note one thing, that when his opinion was demanded, he did ufually speak to the importance as well as to the truth of the question: this was an excellent advantage, and to be met with in few men's conversation.

Tractare res multi norunt, æftimare pauci.

While he read Scaliger on Eufebius, he perceived the dependence of chronology on astronomy, which put him on the study of Ptolemy's Almageft; and finding that book and all aftronomy to depend on geometry, he applied himself to Euclid's Elements, not satisfied till he had laid firm foundations; and fo he made his first entry into the mathematics, having the learned Mr. John Ray then for his focius ftudiorum, and always for his esteemed friend : he proceeded to the demonftration of the other ancient mathematicians, and published his Euclid in a less form and a clearer method than any one had done before him: at the end of his demonftration of Apollonius he has writ, April 14. Intra hæc temporis intervalla peractum hoc opus. To fo much diligence nothing was impoffible: and in

May 16.

CARDAN.

all his ftudies his way was not to leave off his design, till he brought it to effect; only in the Arabic language he made an effay for a little while, and then deserted it. In the fame place having alfo writ, Labore et conftantia, he adds, Bonæ fi conjungantur humilitati®et fubminiftrent charitati. With these fpeculations the largeness of his mind could join poetry, to which he was always addicted, and very much valued that part thereof which confifts of defcription; but the hyperboles of fome modern poets he as much flighted: for our plays, he was an enemy to them, as a principal cause of the debauchery of these times; (the other caufes he thought to be the French education and the ill examples of great persons :) for fatires, he writ none; his wit was pure and peaceable.

When Dr. Duport refigned the chair of Greek Profeffor, he recommended this his pupil for his fucceffor, who juftified his Tutor's opinion by an excellent performance of the probation exercise; but being thought inclined to Arminianifm, he obtained it not: however, he always acknowledged the favour which Dr. Whichcote fhewed him on that, as on all occafions. The partiality of others against him in that affair fome thought might help forward his defire to fee foreign countries. I make no doubt, but that he, who in leffer occurrences did very judiciously confider all circumstances, had on good grounds made this refolution, and wish we now knew them; for the reasons and counfels of action would take off from the drynefs of this narration, and more ftrongly recommend him to imitation.

To provide for his voyage, ann. Dom. 1654, he fold his books, and went first into France: at Paris he found his father attending the English Court, and out of his fmall viaticum made him a seasonable prefent. He gave his College an account of his voyage thither, which will be found among his Poems; and fome farther obfervations in a letter, which will fhew his piercing judgment

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in political affairs, when he applied his thoughts that

way.

After fome months he went to Italy, and made a stay at Florence; where he had the favour, and neglected not the advantage, to perufe many books in the Great Duke's library, and ten thousand of his medals, and difcourfe thereon with Mr. Fitton, the fame of whofe extraordinary abilities in that fort of learning had caused the Duke to invite him to the charge of that great treasury of antiquity.

Florence was too dear a place for him to remain in long his defire was to vifit Rome, rather than any other place; but the plague then raging there, he took ship at Livorn, (Nov. 1657,) for Smyrna, where he made himself most welcome to Conful Bretton, and the merchants; and fo at Conftantinople, to Sir Thomas Bendish, the English Ambaffador, and Sir Jonathan Daws, from whose civility he received many favours; and there ever after continued between them an intimate friendship.

As he could presently learn to play at all games, fo he could accommodate his difcourfe to all capacities, that it should be grateful and profitable; he could argue a point without arrogance or paffion to convince the learned, and could talk pleasantly to the entertainment of eafier minds, yet still maintaining his own character, which had fome fuch authority as is infinuated in these words of Cicero to Atticus, (Ep. xx. 1. 14.) Non te Bruti noftri vulticulus ab ifta oratione deterret ?

At Conftantinople, the fee of St. Chryfoftom, he read over all the works of that Father, whom he much preferred before any of the others, and remained in Turkey above a year. Returning thence to Venice, as foon as he was landed the fhip took fire, and with all the goods was burnt, but none of the people had any harm. He came thence home through Germany and Holland; and fome

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