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75-Botanical Correspondence.-W.T. W., and others, ciety, from a certain age, in prospect, till death, in conwishing to unite in the hotanical correspondence (39) sideration of regular payments by an individual till that should write to the proposer.

certain age. Thus a person, by payment of a shilling a 76-The Language of Flowers. K.-The gentleman week from the age of twenty, secures to himself at the age who presented Kate with the bunch of blue violets de- of sixty a certain sum, quarterly or yearly, for the rest of signed the gift as a compliment to her modesty. By tying his life. them with blue ribbon, he probably intended to strengthen 86-Education. A. A. M.-Our advice is requested as the sentiment of the bouquet,-or, even more likely, to to the best method to be employed to induce a spirit of express his own constancy.

application to study in an intelligent boy of nine years old, 77-Removing Glass Stoppers.-W. W. finds the follow- who is quick and clever, but wants application.-Lure him ing pian the most efficacious :-Put a piece of small

string on gradually by a mode of teaching that shall interest him, around the neck of the bottle, one coil round, and fix one and be carefully adapted to his age and degree of progress. end of the string to a nail, then holding the other end in At nine years old we cannot expect much power of abyour hand, rapidly move the bottle from end to end. The straction. High animal spirits, restlessness, and volatility, heat caused by friction will expand the neck of the bottle, are not the worst signs of this age. Much tact is requisite. and loosen the stopper.

The anxious mother also inquires_“Will that natural 78-Grammatical. F. T. M.-Is it grammatical to say want of application follow him through life?"-We reply, "no one saw it but me?" None of the dictionaries give that characters undergo great changes after nine years old. "but” a prepositional force; but as it means in this case Some of the least studious boys have made the most stuexactly the same as "except,” should it not be followed dious men, Ascertain what is the particular cause of the by the objective case ?-Yes; the phrase is correct, the deficiency, and then you will better know how to deal with "but” has a prepositional force, and takes the objective it most wisely. case. Except, however, is a preferable term.

87- Un fermented Bread. J. C. having written to us 79-Plural and Singular Verbs. We are requested to respecting a batch of unfermented bread, made according determine which is the more correct expression - "In to the instructions, p. 174, vol. ii., which he had prepared this work are contained various specimens :" or-" In and found unsatisfactory, we caused a sample of our own this work is contained,” &c.-The first is correct, the latter (the author's) making to be sent to him. He says in reply: incorrect. The sentence in its natural order reads thus:- 4. Your bread is excellent, and certainly very much su. Various specimens are contained in this work. " Are" is perior to the ordinary kind and adds—there must have the verb substantive, agreeing with its subject--" various been something wrong in the manipulations of Mrs. C." specimens," and connecting it with the predicate--"con- We expect so, and hope that Mrs. C. will not be offended tained in this work."

since her husband first raised the suspicion. 80-Quotation. L. M.-" To teach the young idea scrupulously careful respecting receipts published in our how to shoot.” This passage, so often quoted, occurs in book. They are not (as are such matters in cheap perioThomson's Seasons, Spring, 1. 1150. It is as follows:- dicals generally, ) merely copies from old prints, but the "Delightful task! to rear the tender thought,

result of practical examination and experience. Those To teach the young idea how to shoot,

who use our pages rightly, will find them teeming with To

matters of real utility. pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, To breathe th' enlivening spirit, and to fix

88-Double Consonants. S. H. wishes to be informed

whether it is correct or not to double the last consonant The generous purpose in the glowing breast."

in such words as limitted, biassed, preferred, &c. &c. when 81-Street Etiquette. R. N. H.-It is customary to a third syllable is added. The word limited does not remove the hat upon meeting a person to whom you would double the consonant of the second syllable; and, as a show the best courtesy. But it is not a necessary ob- general rule, the consonant is not doubled when the accent servance; the habit of merely bowing being pursued by is on the first of two syllables of a verb. The word biassed many persons of good taste. The several modes of saluta

doubles the s for the purpose of changing the sound into a tion may be said to possess different qualities, and should because the sharp s, and the flat d, are incompatible be adopted with due regard thereto. A bow is a respectful sounds, and the word is really either biast, or biazd; the and somewhat unfamiliar recognition ; raising the hat indi. double's denotes the latter. This word is an example of cates a higher degree of respectful feeling; the presentation an important class of double consonants, rendered so for of the hand is an indication of friendship, &c. &c.

the sake of euphony. The word preferred is an example 82-Courtship.-Dandelion, a young lady, who writes of a different kind here the consonant r is doubled in like a school girl, confesses herself very much attached” accordance with the rule that preserves in this way the to a gentleman'sir and twenty years older than herself. characteristic significations of the verb. Thus, with a The "old gentleman,” for such we may comparatively term single r the word would be prefere-d; as incurred with one him, is said to be very fascinating.” Dandelion seriously r would be incure-d; and stepped with one p would he asks the Editor whether a happy union is probable, where stepe-d; and fatted with one t would be fate-d-all tothere is such a dissimilarity of ages? The Editor, regard tally different meanings. ing this query as an exhibition of the folly of a wayward 89-Astronomy. R. A. S.-- The asteroids which have girl, refers her to her parents, and reminds her of the com- been discovered within the orbit of Jupiter, and beyond mendment-"Honour thy father and thy mother," &c. that of Mars, are as follows:-Vesta, Juno, Ceres, Pallas,

83-History. T. asks-"What relation was Henry VI. Flora, Iris, Hebe, Astræa, and Diana. The five last have to Edward IV.? and what relationship existed between been discovered since 1847. The new planet, Neptune, each of these and their ancestor, Edward III.?"-Edward beyond the circuit of Uranus, was first seen on the 4th and IV. was cousin to Henry VI., five times removed. Ed- 12th of August, by Professor Challis, of Cambridge; and ward IV. was descended from the third son of Edward III.; afterwards hy Dr. Galle, of the Royal Observatory at BerHenry VI. from the fourth son of that monarch. The third lin, on the 23rd of September. The honour of the discovery son of Edward III. was Lionel, Duke of Clarence; and appears equally to belong to Mr. Adams and M. Leverrier, Edward IV. was a descendant of his daughter. The fourth by whose wonderful calculations a place was assigned to son of Edward III. was the celebrated John of Gaunt; the planet before it was seen. It appears not to preserve and Henry VI. was his great-grandson.

the analogy of distance observed among the nearer planets. 84-past participles. s. C. asks if past participles are Its period of revolution is 164 years; and its substance is always formed by adding d ored to the verbi--No. Verbs considerably lighter than cork. It is probable that it is of what Latham terms the strong conjugation, form their endowed with two or more satellites; and that it possesses past participles with nor en, and a change of vowel; thus a ring like that of Saturn. The number of comets attached the verb speak becomes spoken, took becomes token. Verbs to the Solar System must be several thousands. Nothing of the weak conjugation have three participial forms :- is known of their composition. The matter of the nucleus 1st, d or ed; 2nd, d or t, with a shortening of the vowel, as is powerfully excited and dilated into a vapourous state by in flee, fled, keep, kept ; 3rd, d or t, and a change of vowel, the action of the sun's rays, escaping in streams and jets as in catch, caught-tell

, told. S. C. refers to the double at those points of its surface which afford the least resistconsonants, but these have no force in the formation of ance, and, in all probability, throwing that nucleus into participles; they occur either for the sake of euphony, or irregular motions by its reaction. This process takes place for preserving the precise signification of the verb. in that portion of the nucleus which is turned towards the

85- Annuities. T. E. N.-Nearly all the Life Assurance sun, the vapour chiefly escaping in that direction, and Companies grant annuities. or the National Temperance being drifted back

from the face of the nucleus by'some Provident Society (39, Moorgate Street, London), and of force directed from the sun, thus forming the tail. Hence the National Loan Fund Life Assurance Society (26, it is probable that a comet may lose some of its peculiar Cornhill), we have a good opinion. Applications for pro- vapour at every approach to the sun. The tail of a comet, Spectuses should be made to the the above addresses. however, says 'Sir John Herschel "may consist, for aught "Deferred Annuities" are annuities payable by the so- we know, of a very few pounds of matter." Yet this hand

manner.

ful of matter may be extended over millions of miles of pavilion with collateral boxes. The locality in which I space!

Meteors, or shooting stars, are prohably small reside not being a very good one for bees, I have had freplanets belonging to the Solar System. A brilliant display quently to feed them, but never experienced the difficulty of them generally occurs on the 12th, 13th, and 14th of No- of which K. C. B..complains, neither, I believe, would he, vember; and, not unfrequently, a similar sight has been had he gone rightly to work. Let K. C. B. get shallow enjoyed on the 10th of August, owi g to their crossing the hoxes for his hives to stand in, so that he can introduce, at track of the earth about that date. Every lover of the the back of the hive, a shallow dish with the syrup; and sublime and wonderful should read Sir John Herschel's let him bear in mind never to feed except in the evening, and Outlines of Astronomy, and Humboldt's Cosmos.

always to remove the dish early in the inorning. And be 90-Curious Electrical Properties of Gutta Percha.- careful that none of the syrup be spilt about the hive, as Whilst experimenting with a piece of gutta percha silk (so that will attract the bees from neighhouring hives much called from its thinness and silky appearance), having more than when it is in the comb. At the same time, the accidentally passed my hand briskly along the surface, I entrance to the hive ought to he contracted to about an found it to be strongly charged with electricity, so much inch in length to three-eighths of an inch in depth. By so, that, by repeating it, I could fill a small Leyden jar, attending to this practice, I have never had any fighting give a shock, and perform many experiments, as if I had worth speaking of. As a general rule for feeding heesthe ordinary machine. The following experiments will be at the end of harvest, if needed, feed plentifully, during found interesting. Procure from a gutta percha dealer one winter never feed : in spring feed sparingly."-J. R.C., foot of silk, sold at 5d. per foot. 18t. Cut a strip about Wemyss, Fifeshire. three inches in width the whole length; lay it on a table; 93-Coal. T. L. S., having had some discussion with a then pass your hand or a dry silk handkerchief briskly along clergyman upon Grandfather Whitehead's Lecture upon the surface several times now, if you take it up by one Coal, inquires how it is that coal varies in quality in difend, its excited state will be apparent by its attracting any ferent strata ? — The fact that each layer of coal differs in thing that is near. 2nd. Double the strip, hold it up at the proportion of bituminous matter which it contains, the doubled end; strip through your fingers several times; does not at all affect the truth of the statement that the immediately the two ends will fly apart, showing repulsion. coal strata are the remains of the primæval vegetable 3rd. If these experiments are performed in a dark room, a growths. Where the strata have been exposed to great lambent flame will be seen to follow the hand, and as you heat, the coal contains less hitumen : where the carbonaraise the silk from the table, a line of light flame will be ceous matter has been deposited slowly in an estuary, it observed at the separation. 4th. The most convenient will be coarser, owing to the sand, &c., mixed with the vemethod for the experimentalist, is to fix the silk on a getable matters. In this manner every variety of quality in frame, leaving a margin of three inches on each side, so as coal may be accounted for. The great age of the geologic to insulate the silk as you raise it from the table. For fix-strata must be admitted; and the mere denial of any one ing the silk on the frame, proceed thus :-Buy one yard of person cannot be held sufficient to upset the mass of inforhair-inch flat gutta percha band (cost 2d.); cut two strips mation and arguments brought forward by a host of the width of silk, tack them on each end of the frame, ex- scientific inquirers of high character. The circulation of actly in the centre; then soften with a warm iron the sur- the 1-t) revolution of

round the sun--that face of one end piece, lay the end of silk evenly down, the brain is the organ of the mind-are facts which are pressing it gently until cold. Proceed with the other in now seen to be in no sense opposed to Scripture, though the same manner, drawing it gently until smooth and even. formerly denounced as impious and unscriptural. A simiThe larger the surface of silk, the more powerfully it will lar outcry was raised against anatomy, the use of the microbe excited. 5th. Lay the frame, with silk side downwards, scope, and electricity; and a few years ago a few ill-inon the table, excite as before, raise it up on one end, and formed and injudicious persons denounced Geology in like apply your knuckle, when you will receive several electric

The work of God cannot be opposed to the sparks. To charge a Leyden jar:-Excite, and apply the Word of the Creator. ball of the jar instead of your knuckle; repeat six or eight 94-The Leech Barometer.-Having seen in The Family times, when you will have accumulated enough for a shock. Friend an article (par. 60, app. vol. ii.) recommending a In conclusion; in lieu of glass baked woods, ivory, &c., for leech as "a natural barometer," I was induced to make electrical purposes, gutta percha possesses important ad- the experiment, and for this purpose procured two or vantages, viz., perfect insulating power without the fear three horse-leeches, which I kept in a bottle, and attenof breakage, which is a great desideratum in electrical, tively watched their motions for some time, but was somechemical, and other purposes. Therefore it will be found what puzzled by finding that their motions did not corresvery useful for Leyden jar covers, insulating stools, dis- pond. Since observing this, I came upon the following charging rod-handles, insulating telegraph wire-supports extract from “The Book of Shells," published under the along railways (small stone-ware cylinders are now used, direction of the Committee of General Literature and which allow the rain to deposit in the cavity that the wire Education, 1837.-" The property by which a leech anticipasses through); gutta percha would be superior, as the pates thunder, has induced some persons to employ it as a two ends could be sealed up, thus preventing the wire from species of barometer; for this purpose a leech is enclosed being destroyed at these points.-EDWARD WRIGHT. in a glass vessel half-filled with water, and the following is

91-Do you know yourself when you see yourself ?- supposed to be the result:- When the weather is about to It is a remarkable fact that although a person may have be serene and pleasant the leech will remain at the bottom become familiar with his front face, his profile is so strange of the vessel without the least movement. Secondly-If it to his eye, that he does not immediately recognise it. is about to rain, the animal will rise to the surface, and Passing between two tall pier glasses, some time back, we there remain until the approach of fine weather. Thirdly

noticed in A the re--Before boisterous weather, it will appear in a state of flection of the glass great agitation. Fourthly-On the approach of thunder, it B, containing a pro

will remain out of water for several days, appearing agifile view of a face tated, restless, and so on. This natural barometer appears which we thought to answer tolerably well if there is sufficient belief in its we had somewhere virtues on the part of the possessor, and if one leech only seen, but the owner is employed; but when several of these creatures are enof which we could closed in the same vessel, they do not appear to obey the not remember how same laws, and consequently their movements do not cor

Upon a respond with sufficient accuracy to render their indications closer examination, of the weather of much use." I thought the failure might chiefly owing to lit possibly arise from my employing horse-leeches instead of tle peculiarities in medicinal leeches. If any of your numerous corresponthe arrangement of dents can explain this, it will much oblige D. O. H.-We the hair, we found it stated in our notice of the barometrical properties of the was the side view of leech, that we had not much acquaintance with the subourself. The glasses ject; and the remarks quoted were founded upon the aucan be easily ar- thority of W. H. Attree, Esq. The above letter having

ranged in the po- again attracted our attention to the matter, we again resition indicated in the dingram, so that a side face is pre- ferred to the leech, and were not a little discomfited to find sented obliquely to the glass B, and a front face ob- that our flexile friend had crept off through a hole in the liquely to the glass A.

covering of the bottle-a pretty decided " indication” that 992--Bces. "J. R. C., in reply to a quen ve heen an apia

(36 of Questions he thought he could better his condition. The result of Requiring Answers, vol. ii.), says--"

this excursion in search of a new home is probably disasriail for the last fifteen years. I have a considerable va- trous. The daring traveller very likely lies dead upon the riety of hives, from the simple rustic straw hive, to Nutt's arid desert-& warning to the discontented ]

А

B

to name.

95-Chess. P:- The opposing kings may not venture bookseller's shop, and frequently it happens that persons into squares next to each other. Nor can one king give of distinction on leaving the shop, wish me “Good morning" check to another.

long after I have had my dinner. Should I, in reply, say 96-Betting. K. T.-We disapprove of betting. It is “Good morning," or "Good afternoon?" N.-Politean unlawful speculation, in which gain is sought to he ob- ness dictates that N. should return the parting salutation tained without a fair consideration or equivalent. Ladies, in similar words to those in which it is given. To do other especially, should avoid it.

wise would be to create an unnecessary "jar" of feeling i 97-Bad Habits of Children. Q.-A bitter substance consequent upon the appearance of dissimilar habits. The rubbed upon the thumb of a child will correct its habit divisions of the day depend not upon the hours at which of sucking the part. A strong decoction of chamomile people may dine, but upon the positions of the sun. But flowers may be employed for the purpose.

as a matter of courtesy to superiors, the rule we suggest 98-Heraldry. J. B. N.-Burke's Heraldry contains will be found most agreeable. the names of thirteen Nicholsons, bearing arms. Commu- 110-Fresh and Salt Water. G. T.-The water of the nicate your descent to any herald writer, and at the charge sea being acted upon by the sun, rises into vapour, leaving of a few shillings he will inform you of your proper arms. the salts and impurities that are not volatile in the ocean.

99- Moles. W. A. B. - It is very doubtful whether The vapours being condensed in the higher and colder remoles are not more useful than the reverse. They keep gions of the atmosphere, or by contact with mountains, the earthworms in check. The best mode of destroying form rain or mist, which falls to the earth. Some of the moles is by the common trap, made with noose, frame, and rain accumulates in caves and crevices having openings in bent stick.

valleys far off, and it there reappears as a spring, from 100-Cheap Roofing. E. B.-The patent asphalte roof- whence perhaps rises a river. This stream, in passing the ing felt, manufactured by Croggon & Co., 2, Dowgate Hill, habitations of man, receives a load of decaying vegetables, London, and sold at one penny the square foot, is an ex- &c., which it carries away to the sea, where, naviny parted cellent material for roofing cottages, sheds, &c. &c., and with their gaseous constituents, they deposit their salts. for lining granaries, &c., from which it is desirable to ex- 111-Meerschaum. J. A.-- The appearance of this clude vermin.

substance, before its manufacture, somewhat resembles 101-Fainting.-Fanny G. seriously asks the Editor to foam. It'is stated to be found floating in the sea of Azof, send her a safe receipt to enable her to faint. Young and on the shores of Samos, and Negropont. From either ladies of Fanny's class are too apt to feint, and to make of these circumstances its name, meaning "sea-foam,” themselves appear ridiculous. We would rather give may have been derived. It consists of a hydrate of magFanny something to strengthen her: she is weak enoughnesia, with silex, carbonic acid, and water. It is dug from already.

the earth in several places in Turkey, where it is used as 102-Reading. M. C.-It is a rule established by cus-soap. The tobacco-pipes are made in Turkey by a process tom, to syllabify the terminal "ed" in reading all docu- analogous to that for making pottery-ware, and imported ments of importance. This is particularly observed with into Germany, where they are prepared for sale by soaking reference to Scripture, and the various formularies of the them first in wax, then in tallow, and finally polishing Church of England, and not uncommonly in the reading of them with shave-grass, or crape. The latter is used to reproclamations by the Queen, or the dignitaries of the move scratches or imperfections from those injured in church or the law.

packing. Artificial meerschaum is made with fine plaster 103-Etiquette. F. L. C.-A lady ought to rise from of Paris baked for a few hours, and thrown, while warm, her seat when a gentleman calls upon her, whatever his into melted wax, or linseed oil. rank may be. No gentleman, however high his station, 112-Clouds. F.T.S.-The varied forms of the clouds ever bows or speaks to a lady whom he meets in the street, depend upon the modes of their formation--that is, whether unless particularly acquainted. It is the lady's privilege they are condensed into visible forms in a quiet or a disalways to notice him first. - See p. 254, vol. ii.

turbed atmosphere. It is likely also that the electrical 104-Quotation. L. M.--The line quoted by Byron- condition of the vapour itself may have an influence upon “The paths of glory lead but to the grave,"

the shape it may assume. The cloud is a collection of

vapours'suspended in the atmosphere, and consists chiefly is to be found in Gray's "Elegy," stanza ix.; in which,

of water converted into the gaseous form by heat. The also, occurs the celebrated passage

round massive cloud which looks like a distant mountain, "Full many a flower is born to blush unseen,

is called cumulus. The name is a Latin word, signifying á And waste its sweetness on the desert air."

heup, (and is the derivative of accumulation.) The Hat 105-Hair Dye.-J. B., wishing to dye his hair brown,

long cloud is called stratus, a layer, (hence the word prepared the hair-dye, p. 296, vol. ii.; but, determining stratification, &c.) The feathery cloud, like a colt's tail, is first to try the experiment upon a detached lock, found

When the stratus intersects the

called cirrhus, a heard. that the dye changed the colour of the hair to a deep black. cumulus, the combined form is called nimbus (a shower), -J. B. allowed the dye to remain on the hair too long

from its producing rain. An article on this subject will be the degree of colour is influenced by the duration of the

contained in our future pages. application of the dye.

113--Etiquette. Miss L. begs to submit a question 106-Armorial Bearings. M.C.-Persons having their

which has arisen between herself and a friend, as to which arms impaled upon carriages are liable to a tax of 488. per

is etiquette--For the lady of the house herself to comPersons not keeping carriages, but liable to the mence singing or playing at a party, or to ask some of her window duty, and using aimorial hearings on their seals,

friends to do so first. On the one side it was argued, that 248. per annum. Persons not included in the foregoing,

it is the part of the hostess to entertain her guests, and 128. per annum. The tax, however, is seldom enforced, that she ought to set them at ease, by taking the responsiexcept against those who keep carriages.

bility of a first performance herself; whereas, the other 107-Fly Papers. J.-- The papers used for catching side stated, that the hostess should keep herself in the backflies are probably made from a mixture of treacle and tur- ground, and that it is supposed she will best entertain her pentine. Preparations of this kind, however, undoubtedly guests by leading them to display their talents, especially attract into the room more flies than they catch or kill.

when attention is likely to be liveliest.-- In the case stated The following receipt is said to be effective but we have by Miss L. n10 fixed rule can be given. If the guests are not tried it :-" Take half a tea-spoonful of black pepper

young and timid, the lady of the house may encourage in powder, one tea-spoonful of hrown sugar, and one them by first sitting down to her harp or piano ; the retable-spoonful of cream; mix them well together, and verse is, however, most customary and proper. No lady

certainly will seek to outshine her friends, in either case. place them on a plate in the room where the flies are troublesome, and they will soon disappear."

114--Language of Flowers.-- Being at a gipsy party 108 - Electrical Amalgam. W. W. M.- Melt equal the other day, and having a beautiful double gillyflower in parts of tin and zinc together in an iron spoon, or ladle, my coat, it was much admired by a lady; I took it out and and stir the melted metals quickly with an iron rod, or wire. presented it to her, without thinking at the moment of the Having heated a quantity of mercury, equal in quantity to sentiment of flowers. On returning home in an omnibus the tin and zinc together, stir it in. Then pour the whole we stayed at a village on the way, when the lady wished to into a wooden box, and shake violently till the amalgam is get out to speak to a friend, and having to pass me in cold. To preserve this amalgam from oxidation by the doing so, she extended her hand towards me; I took it to asair, it must be kept in a bottle closely stopped. When re- sist her, when unperceived by any one present,she placed the quired to be applied to the electrical machine, it is used in flower in my hand which I gave her in the morning. I am the following manner:-A portion of the amalgam should quite at a loss to understand her meaning in returning the be crushed on clean paper, and then applied to the cushion flower. If you will favour me with your opinion on the of the machine, which should have been greased with fresh subject, through the medium of your valuable magazine, tallow.

you will greatly oblige C. B.-The gillyflower is the emblem 109-Morning, Noom, SC.I am a young man in a of "lasting beauty;" and the lady being aware of this

annum.

may have thought it her duty to decline the assumed 119-Mercury.-G. s. inquires what are the bad ftattery. Ladies, however, are very capricious in such effects of mercury imbibed into the human frame. We matters, and in this case there may have been a motive conclude that our correspondent does not allude to the which our wits fail to discover.

liquid metal (which in its uncombined state cannot pass 115-Teaching the Blind to read. ---In Appendix, vol. ii. into the blood), but uses the term in its popular sense. Questions Answered, No. 16, there was some information The stone mercury, or bichloride of quicksilver, is a given as to teaching the blind to read. Will the Editor be violent irritant poison, which chemically changes the vital kind enough to mention a new mode of printing invented fuids, rendering them quite untit to support life. Calomel, by Mr. Moon, Brighton, who is himself blind, and the the protochloride of quicksilver, is a less violent agent, but teacher of a Blind School. It is a very great improvement if carelessly administered produces peculiar effects, such upon former plans--first, because the characters are so as ulcerated sore-throat, excessive salivation, loosening of extremely simple as to be easily felt; second, because not the teeth, and scaly eruptions on the skin. It also apbeing in shorthand, it is quickly learnt, and easily retained; pears sometimes, when administered in continued doses, and third, because it is stereotyped by a process which to produce sudden death. makes the letters very sharp to the touch. Mr. Moon has 120-Impositions.--Seeing your observations on the also invented a very simple mode of writing, and of printing deceptive advertisements now circulating in newspapers, music for the blind. Mr. Moon being blind, a lady at and also a wish expressed that your readers would assist Clapham Common, who lately visited his school at you in exposing them-I wrote to " Professor Luton, 2, Brighton, and was exceedingly struck with the perfect Hastings Street, Burton Crescent, London," who professes success of his plan then in use, has complied with his to enable any lady or gentleman, "irrespective of age or request to write this communication to the Editor. Any appearance, to gain the affections of as many of the oppocommunication might be addressed to Mr. Moon, Blind site sex as their hearts may desire." I enclosed thirteen School, Brighton.--[The Editor has received specimens postage stamps, and received as answer a small green corof Mr. Moon's Works. ]

ered book containing about twelve pages,where, after a great 116-Pronunciation, N. N.-There is some difference deal of winding, he informs you that he can accommodate of opinion as to the pronunciation of Deuteronomy. If we you with a wife, either by writing and inserting advertiseare to be guided by derivation, the emphasis would be on ments; or secondly, from the great number of young perthe penultima, or last syllable but one; and this is the sons he is acquainted with-which renders the first idea pronunciation adopted by many scholars. On the other only to be resorted to as a forlorn hope. But at last comes hand, those who regard certain habits of accent in the the requirement of a "consideration," which I suppose he Anglo-Saxon tongue as more worthy of regard than the leaves to the generosity of the discerning public!-DEaccents of the derivatives, argue that to accent the penul- TECTOR.(This furnishes a reply to S. R.'s inquiry.] tima is pedantic, and gives a harsh sound to the ear.' With 121-Another Cheat.-To save others from a snare into these is Walker, who places the aecent upon the antepe- which I have myself foolishly fallen, in spite of the renuitima, or last syllable but two.-With reference to the peated cautions constantly received through your and word literati, the accent falls upon the a, which is the long other valuable publications, I beg to state the following: sound as in fate. The pronunciation of homeopathy again Seeing a: advertisement in one of our local papers (Leeds involves a question. Some persons accent the first syllable Intelligencer, I believe), professing, honourably to secure only; a few, arguing that all diphthongs are long, accent an income of £10 per week, on receipt of a post office orthee; the greatest number, from the custom ruling in a der for 108., being really needy, and anxious to turn my majority of Anglo-Saxon words, accent the antepenultima, time and talents to account, I wrote a very polite note, making the o short, as in "f; :" many, again, guided by with most satisfactory references, saying, if I could only the accent on the first syllable of the second word of the be taught to earn half that sum, I would gladly send double two from which the English term is derived, accent the a, the amount nained, stating, also, that a person in a small and give it the long sound. We are inclined in favour of provincial town was very differently situated to a stranger the first and last, and have a slight preference for the in the great ocean of the metropolis ; to this note I received a latter.

very indignant reply; but there were some things seemingly 117- Gnats. W. A. B.-The common gnat (culer so fair, that I was foolish enough to send the post office pipieus) is a near relation to the musquito, but is not order, in return for which, I have this morning received usually so troublesome to the human species. They both three receipts-one for cleaning kid gloves, one for renbelong to the section Nemocera of the Dipterous insects, dering boots and shoes waterproof, and a third for inlaying whose mouths are furnished with bristly stings, included in mother-o'-pearl. These, and better receipts for the in flexile sheaths. They pierce the skin by means of the same purposes, almost any receipt-book contains; and proboscis, in order to feed upon the blood, and, at the much more valuable ones are constantly to be met with same time, inject a poisonous fluid, producing considerable in your pages. I think you will confer a benefit by naming inflammation and swelling, of varying intensity in different this transaction in your Family Friend, as it may justly be persons. Their activity usually commences towards even- entitled.-F. E. F., Ripon, Yorkshire.- We have received ing, or after sunset. The Laplanders appear to be the numerous letters complaining of similar impositions. In greatest sufferers from their attacks; but all latitudes are, one case an attempt was made to swindle our corresponmore or less, troubled with the species. The Laplanders dent out of 501., upon pretence that a secret would be reuse tar-cream to prevent the insects biting them, but that vealed by which a larger fortune than could ever be spent could scarcely be used in this country. The common might be made in less time than would be consumed by Goulard water, scented with eau de Cologne, is the best the tossing up of a sixpence-or some such preposterous application we know, and is useful in allaying the irritation, pretension. We caution our Family Friends everywhere as preventing the attacks. We have observed that gnats against fraudulent parties who, under various plausible seldom or never frequent rooms or houses where chloride pretences, advertise" secrets,” and discoveries," ** valuof lime has been exposed. We should be glad if those who able receipts," &c. &c., for sale. We shall probably reare much troubled by gnats would try the use of this turn to the matter, and give a list of the impostors, though remedy, and report upon its efficacy. If the diffusion of a this will be an insufficient security, seeing that they change small quantity of chlorine in the air should be fatal to the their names frequently, with the very purpose of duping culex species, the inhabitants of the tropics would consider the same victims a second time. us indeed a Family Friend in making, with the assistance of our correspondents, the discovery of any method of destroying the musquitoes.

QUESTIONS ANSWERED. 118-Door Mats. E. B.-One of the most useful mats

for cottage and other doors is 5-Economical Living. J. B.-If J. B. will refer to the that termed the chain mat," " Penny Vegetarian Cookery," published by W. Horsell, which is commonly made of Aldine Chambers, 13, Paternoster Row, he will find the rope, or of cocoa-nut fibre. in

he asks for on this subject. After nearly twelve WD These mats are found very months' experience, I can vouch for the expenses being

durable, and it is sufficiently withiu the prescribed sum. In addition to practising the

obvious from their structure Vegetarian dietary, I have, for nearly two years, disconNged with dirt, which falls into that they do not become clog- | tinued taking tea, coffee, &c., and have found a substitute

in Nature's beverage, cold water, which I take, sweetened the interstices, and may easily with loaf sugar, twice a day; namely, to breakfast, and at be swept away when the mat the usual hour of tea; so great is my liking for it, that, at

is lifted up. We call the at- this time, I take it in preference to any of the usual bevetention of cottagers to the fact that hay-hands, or twisted rages prepared for those meals, and without experiencing or plaited straw, may easily be converted into mats of this the ill effects from it I formerly did after partaking » description,

them.--A, M. BOYNE,

[graphic]

many years.

122-Sealing War in Table Covers. A. F.-Dissolve in their studies, the desire to extend and perfect a knowthe spots of wax by touching them repeatedly with spirits ledge of our own flora, and the need of facilities for the of wine, or naphtha. Apply the spirit with a camel-hair exchange and procurance of specimens,-have induced pencil.

the formation of a society, combining all the desiderata, 123-Night-caps. V.-Night-caps have more to do to be called "The British National Flora, and Naturalist's with cleanliness than health; they are not essential to the Corresponding Society." We have received a prospectus latter. Our editorial head has been de-cap-itated (!) for of the new institution, of which the foregoing is an ex

tract. Parties interested should apply for information to 124-Yes or No, to a negative question ? P. What Douglas H..Campbell, Hon. Sec., St. Chloe Grange, near answer would you give to this question, which, you will

Stroud. perceive, is interrogative-"He is not coming, then ?"- 185-Insects, to kill. W. H. L.-Coleoptera may be If the person is not coming, the answer should be No.- killed for preservation by immersion in alcohol, or in boilIf he is coming, it should be-Yes.

ing water. They should not be exposed to the latter more 125-Emigration.-C. GWILLIM, the Secretary to the than four seconds. Orthoptera and Hemiptera should be British Ladies' Female Emigrant Society, thanks M. H. killed by the same means, or by being laid upon bruised L. B. for acceptable contributions. Several ladies have laurel leaves, or by being exposed to the vapour of adopted" emigrant baskets,” for the preservation of scraps creosote. Neuroptera should be killed py piercing them of useful materials. We hope that many more will adopt with a pin dipped in a strong solution of oxalic acid. the benevolent resolution. See par. 43.

Hymenoptera may be killed in the same manner--the 126-War Flowers and Baskets. A. R. S.-The tint

smaller species by pressure on the thorax, or by the of the fuschia differs widely in different specimens. The fumes of laurel leaves, or lucifer matches. Lepidoptera deep lake colour is imitated in wax with carmine or ver- may be killed by the same means as Hymenoptera, milion, com hined with a little blue. The baskets are 136---Reflecting Telescopes. J. C. 8.-The refracting made by first forming the skeleton of iron or copper wire, astronomical telescope is formed of two convex lenses in and dipping it in melted wax.

a tube, and is the simplest form of telescope. In the 127-Electro-plating of Insects. A subscriber

writes Galillean telescope a concave eye-piece is used. Rein allusion to No. 54 Appendix, p. 5, as follows:- The ob- fracting telescopes for land objects are a compound form ject will be more easily

gained by dipping the insect in an of the first-named, and are so constructed as, by the use alcoholic solution of bi-sulphuret of carbon, and then in of different qualities of glass, to prevent the decomposia solution of nitrate of silver. A very thin coat of silver tion of the light rays at the edges of the picture presented will be deposited, which will conduct better than plum- to the eye. When this is accomplished perfectly, such bago, and the most delicately-formed insect can he sub- instruments are called achromatic (without colouring), mitted to the process.

Telescopes are not difficult to construct, and some of 128-Myrtle Slips. E. N. T., after alluding to our di- the finest have been made by amateur opticians. rections to strike myrtle slips, writes as follows:"A 137-Chemical Experiments - Photography, &c. &c. simple and almost unfailing plan is to place a slip in a J.C. H., Madras, East Indies. - In chemical work's where phial bottle of water; place in the sun, where the least “parts" are mentioned “proportions" are meant ;

und possible disturbance from wind, opening of the window, any quantity may be used so that the proportions are pre&c., will be experienced. Fill up the bottle as the water served. The best work on photography is that by Mr. wastes, but never change it. In a month or two roots will Hunt. Our correspondent is not perhaps aware that the start out; let them get strong, and then plant the slips. actinic rays of the sun (by which daguerreotype and calo

129-Titles.-Rosa would be glad to be informed, if in type drawings are effected) are least active about the ecliptic speaking of a near relative, who is a colonel, doctor, or where the heat and light rays are most powerful, and that any similar title, it would be correct to call him by that in the hot latitude, from which he dates his letter, there title, or to make use of his christian name? Would it ap- may be peculiarities in the sunbeam for which J. C. H, pear ostentatious to do the former, or a want of respect to must allow. It has been found impossible to take do the latter :-[ We think there is a propriety in employ- daguerreotype, or calotype, in Mexico, Chili, and Peru, ing the title, it implies the respect which an exalted posi- owing to the deficiency of actinic power in the sunbeams tion is understood to deserve.]

of tropical regions. 130-To Heat a Bath. M. A. H.-If it is not conveni- 138-Ivory.-S.E.F.complains that an ivory card-case, ent to carry heated water from the fire to the bath, a pipe a beautiful specimen of Chinese carving, is so discoloured may be fitted to the boiler or kettle on the kitchen fire, and as to be unfit for use, and asks for a recipe by which its the steam from those sources condensed into the bath- colour may be restored. The manufacturers of ivory water. The steam pipe should be covered with non-con- articles commonly bleach it by exposing it to the rays of ducting material (such as woollen cloth), suficiently thick the sun under close glass shades. It should be previously to prevent the condensation of the steam in the pipe after washed with spirits of wine and water containing a small the first few minutes. The water in the boiler or kettle quantity of soda, and allowed to dry slowly in a cool must, of course, be raised to boiling temperature.

place before exposure. Under any circumstances, how131-The Leech Barometer.-In answer to D. 0. H., I ever, carving is very apt to crack, or become unglued. have had a "Leech Barometer" now about six months- 139-Grummar Composition. C. C. B.-The eximmediately after I first saw an account of one in the pression "so as that" is common in some parts of EngFamily Friend; it is a medicinal leech, one I had occasion land, but is incorrect. In the sentence " I do not wish to use during an illness, and a more faithful or correct you to remain so as that he may suspect," should be weather indicator never was possessed by anybody. I keep written "lest he suspect." To write with grammatical him in a bottle about half full of water, with a piece of purity three things have been considered essential:-- Ist. calico tied over the neck, pricked with a pin to admit air. He Unity of language 2nd. Grammatical arrangement of has not decamped, but seems very happy.-J. L. Greenwich. words. 3rd. Precision in the use of terms. Propriety,

132-Riding.-A. G. inquires "if a lady takes an or elegance, depends on the avoidance of inconsistent airing on horseback, accompanied by a gentleman, which or doubtful phrases, vulgarisms, technical terms, obscuis considered the proper side for the gentleman to ride-on rities of meaning, the excessive use of superlatives, pueriher right or left?--Authorities differ, but the general im- lities, affected and obsolete language, and upon the appropression, and to us the most reasonable opinion, is that the priate use of figures and ornaments, together with a strict gentleman should ride on the lady's left, because--Ist. His regard to the facilities of reading, and the musical arrangeright hand is at liberty to seize her rein in case her horse ment of the sounds of words. was restive, (or to give the lady herself assistance.) 2nd. 140-Charity. C. M. B., A. F., &c. &c.-We are conBecause the lady can most conveniently talk with the stantly in receipt of applications from benevolent persons, gentleman on her left.

appealing to us to assist unfortunate individuals by the 133-Hair Dye-Good News for the Grey Heads ! – publication of certain statements, and by the recommenAllow me to return my sincere thanks to your correspon- dation of a general subscription among our subscribers. dent for his recipe of an invaluable, but extremely econo- Nothing can be more painful to the Editor than to disremical hair dye, published at p. 117. 1 followed out the gard or refuse

the publication of such appeals; but it must directions, with the exception of applying the damp paper on the head, and found it gave the exact shade I wanted, commenced, there would be no limit to suichi reqnests. being a dark brown.

I am fully persuaded that had I fol- The Editor is, therefore, compe led to decline making his lowed out the recipe to the letter it would have turned the periodical the vehicle of charitable appeals, whether to hair black. I have been grey since I was twenty-one supply individual wants, to raise chapels, churches, disyears ola, i am now thirty-one, and the change is highly pensaries, soup kitchens, or aught else. Energetic action satisfactory to myself and my friends.-C., Camberwelt. in private circles, where the claims of the suffering may

134-National Flora.-The want of a soctety calcu- be heard and felt, will, in most cases, be far more successlated

to promote botanical research, and to assist students ful than a public appeal.

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