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government of the day desired that advantage should be taken of the opportunity to inculcate upon parents and children alike a lesson of thrift—that they should save the school pence which the were no longer bound to ay. The Education Department an the postmaster-general wor ed in concert to realize this end. School managers were urged to press the matter upon all concerned, special stamp slips were Erepared and issued, managers were supplied on credit with stoc s of stamps to be sold to the children, and clerks from the nearest post offices attended at schools to open accounts and receive deposits. The arran ement began in January 1892; about 1400 schools adopted the sc eme at once, and three years later this number had risen to 3000. A sum of nearly {14,000 was estimated to have been deposited in schools in 5 months, and about {40,000 in the first year. Concurrently with the spread of the stamp-slip system in the schools, the extension of School Penny Banks, connected intimately with the Savings Bank, was a conspicuous result of the effort to turn into profitable channels the pence which no longer paid school fees.

" In December 1893 another Act of Parliament extended the annual limits of deposits from £30 to £ 0. The maximum of £200 remained unchanged, but it was rovi ed that any accumulations accruing after that amount had 11 reached should be invested in government stock unless the depositor gave instructions to the contra .

“ Inrllkcember 1893 arrangements were made for the use of the telegraph for the withdrawal of money from the savings bank. Postmasters-general had hesitated long before sanctionin this new departure. It was known that the system was in force a road, and it was recognized that there might be, and doubtless were, cases in the United Kingdom where the possibility of withdrawing mone without delay might be all-important, and might save a depositor from debt and distress. But, on the other hand, it was strongly held that the cause of thrift was sometimes served by interposing a delay between a sudden desire to spend and its realization; and it was also held to be essential to maintain a marked distinction between a bank of deposit for savings and a bank for keeping current accounts."

On the whole, the balance of opinion was in favour of the change, and two new methods of withdrawal were provided. A depositor might telegraph for his money and have. his warrant sent to him by return of post, or he might telegraph for his money and have it paid to him in an hour or two on the authority of a telegram from the savings bank to the postmaster. The first method cost the depositor about 9d., the second cost him about IS. 3d. for the transaction. On the 3rd of July 1905 a new system of withdrawal was instituted, under which a depositor, on presentation of his book at any post office open for savings bank business, can withdraw immediately any sum not exceeding {1. Depositors have availed themselves extensively of this system. During 1906, 4,7 58,440 withdrawals, considerably more than one-half of the total number of withdrawals, were made “on demand,” and as a consequence the number of withdrawals made by telegraph fell to 122,802, against 168,036 in the previous year (during only half of which the “ on demand " system was in force).

By an act which came into force on the rst of January 1895 building societies, duly incorporated, were enabled to deposit at any one time a sum not exceeding £300, and to buy government stock up to £ 500 through the savings bank.

Savings Bank Enema—The increase in the deposits lodged in the post office savings bank must be ascribed to a variet of causes. Numbers of trustee banks have been closed, and have transferred their accounts to the post office bank; greater facilities have been offered by the bank; the limits of deposit in one year, and of total deposit, have been raised; and, since October 1892, deposits may be made by cheque; while the long-continued fall in the rate of interest made the assured 2% % of the post oflhce savin 5 bank an increasin temptation to a class of investors previous y accustomed to loo elsewhere. The high price of consols, due in part to the magnitude of purchases on savings bank account,

roved a serious embarrassment to the profitabe workin of the bank, which had shown a balance of earnings on each year s working until 1896, after paying its expenses and 2P4, interest to its depositors. Economical working minimized, but did not remove the difliculty. The average cost of each transaction, originally nearly 7d., has been brought down to 5id. Down to the year 1896, {1,598,767 was paid into the exchequer under § 14 of the Act 40 Vict. c. 13, being the excess of interest which had accrued year by year. But since 1895 there have been deficits in each year, and in 1905, owin rincipal y tc the reduced rate on consols, the expenditure excee e the income by {88,094.

The central savings bank having outgrown its accommodation in Queen _Victoria Street, London, a new site was

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purchased in 1898 for {45,000 at West Kensington, and the foundation-stone of a new building, costing £300,000, was laid by the prince of Wales on the 24th of June 1899. The entire removal of the business was carried out in 1903.

Under the Workmen's Compensation Act of 1897, sums awarded as compensation might be invested in the post ofiice savings bank. This arrangement proved so convenient that an act of 1900 authorized a similar investment of money paid into an English county court in ordinary actions at common law, and ordered to be invested for the benefit of an infant or lunatic. In 1906 a committee was appointed to go into the question as to whether the post ofiice should provide facilities for the insurance of employers in respect of liabilities under the Workmen’s Compensation Acts, but no scheme was recommended involving post office action either as principal or agent. Post offices, however, exhibit notices drawing attention to the liabilities imposed by the act of 1906, and sub-postmasters are encouraged to accept agencies in their private capacity for insurance companies undertaking this class of insurance.

Inducement: to ThrifL—By arrangement with the war office in July 1893, the deferred pay of soldiers leaving the arm was invested on their behalf in the post office savings bank, ut it was found that the majority of the soldiers draw out practically the whole amount at once, and the experiment was discontinued in 1901. At the request of large employers of labour, an officer of the savings bank attends at industrial establishments on days when wages are paid, and large numbers of workmen have thus been induced to become depositors. The advantages of the savings

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bank ap ar to be now thoroughly appreciated throughout the
United ingdom, as shown by the following table :—
On the 31st of December 1900.
A “52,,
Number of T‘Z'alofgfggt 41:13:81.; 558
DCDOSums. Depositom 1:53:15: gm %
Dcpositnr. E 9‘:
9-
£ {1. s. d.
EnglandandWales. 7.685.317 122,365.193 15 18 5 1 in 4
Scotland . . . . 372.801 5,126,299 13 15 o 1 in 12
Ireland . 381,865 8,058,153 21 2 1 1 in 12
Totals. 8.439.983 135,549,645 16 1 3 1in 5
On the 3rst of December 1905.
g 1;. a d.
Englandand Wales. 9,027,112 135,668,450 15 o 7 1in 3-8
Scotland . . . 451,627 6,205,339 13 14 10 1in10-4
Ireland . 484,310 10,237,351 21 2 9 1in 9-1
Totals 9.963.049 152,111,140 15 5 4 1in 4-3

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Between the foundation of the bank and the end of 1899, upwards of {648,000,000, inclusive of interest, was credited to depositors, of which {474,000,000 was withdrawn. There were 232,634,596 deposits, 81,804,509 withdrawals, 27,071,556 accounts opened. and 18,631,573 accounts closed. he cross-entries, or instances where the account is operated upon at a different office from that at which it was opened, amounted to 33 %. It is chiefly in respect of this facility that the post office savings bank enjoys its advantage over the trustee savings bank. In 1905, 16,320,204 deposits were made, amounting to {42,300,617. In the same ear the withdrawals numbered 7,155,283, the total sum withdrawn being {42,096,037. The interest credited to depositors was {$567,206, and the total sum standing to their credit on the 3rst of ecember 1900 was {152,111,140

A classification of accounts opened for 3 months in 1896, and assumed to be fairly typical, showed the following results:—

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The division according to number of accounts, in the same groups, was 908, 5-3, 2-2, 1-3 and 0-4 respectively.

Investments in Government S!oclz.-—~ln September 1888 the minimum amount of government stock which might be purchased or sold through the post ofiice savings bank was reduced from £10 to 15., and it was also provided that any person who had

urchased stock through the savings bank could, if he so desired,

ave it transferred to his own name in the books of the Bank of England. The act of 1893 raised the limit of stock to £200 in one year, and £500 in all; but any depositor might purchase stock, to replace stock previously sold, in one entire sum during that year. If a depositor exceeds the authorized limits of deposit in the post office savings bank, the excess is invested in stock by the post office on his behalf. The investments of depositors in government stock, however, have a tendency to decrease, and the sales, on the other hand, to increase, as will be seen from the following table:—

additional five words, the addresses of sender and receiver being sent free. In 1885 the charge was reduced to a halfpenny a word throughout, including addresses (a system of abbreviated addresses, which could be registered on payment of a guinea a. year, being introduced), with a. minimum charge of sixpence. T0 obviate the damage and interruption resulting from storms large numbers of wires have been laid underground.

In 1891 the terms under which a new telegraph office was opened, on the request of a person or persons who undertook to uarantee the post office against loss, were reduced. In 1892 rura sanitary authorities were empowered to ive such guarantees out of the rates. In 1897, as part of the Ju ilee concessions, the government undertook to pay one-half of any deficiency under guarantees. During the six years ended in 1891 the average number of telegra h offices guaranteed each year was 77. From 1892 to 1897 t e average rose to 167. In 1905 and 1906 it amounted to 152. The number of telegraph offices opened Without guarantee has increased apace, and there are now 12,993 telegraph offices in all. As rt 01' the Jubilee scheme the charges for porterage were reducedmas follows: Up to 3 miles free; beyond 3 m., 3d. per m., reckoned from the ost office; and arrangements were made for the free delivery at all hours of the day or night of an telegram within the metropolitan postal district. The cost of ree delivery up to 3 m. was estimated at £52,000 a year.

Foreign Telegrams—The sixth international telegraph conference, held at Berlin in 1884, effected a reduction in the

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into operation on the 3rd of june 1884, utilized the machinery of the post office savings bank for annuities and life insurances, which had been efiected throu h the post office at selected towns in En land and Wales since tile 17th of April 1865. Under the act 0 1882 all payments were to be made by means of money deposited in the savings bank, and an order could be given by a depositor that any sum—even to 1d. a week—should be devoted to the purchase of an annuity or insurance so long as he retained a balance in the savings bank. In February 1896 new life insurance tables came into operation, with reduced annual rates, and with

revision for payment of sums insured at various ages as desired.

The minimum charge for any foreign (European) telegram was fixed at 10d. The eighth conference (Budapest, 1896) succeeded in making the following reductions, among others, from the United Kingdom: China 7s. to 5s. 6d., java 65. to 5s., Japan 85. to 65. 2d., Mauritius 8s. ed. to 5s., Persia zs. 5d. to 15. 9d. At this conference it was made incumbent upon every state adhering to the union to fix in its currency an equivalent approaching as nearly as possible the standard rate in gold, and to correct and declare the equivalent in case of any important fluctuation.

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he following table shows the business done from 1901 to 1905:—

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TELEGRAPHS AND TELEPHONES

The history of the development of telegraphy and the early proposals for the transference to the state of the telegraph Telegram monopoly will be found in the article TELEGRAPHY.

'On the 5th of February 1870 the Telegraph Act of the previous year took effect. The post office assumed control of telegraphic communication within the United Kingdom, and it became possible to send telegrams throughout the country at a 'uniform charge irrespective of locality or distance. In 1885 sixpenny telegrams were introduced. The charge for a written telegram Which came into force in 1870 was one shilling for the first twenty words, and threepence for every

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The limit of letters in one word of plain language was raised from 10 to 15, and the number of figures from 3 to 5. The International Telegraph Bureau was also ordered to compile an enlarged official vocabulary of code words, which it is proposed to recognize as the sole authority for words which may be used in cypher telegrams sent by the public. (See Appendix to Poshnastcr-Gen-cral’s RcP0rf, 1897.) See further TELEGRAPH.

Ten years of state administration of the telegraphs had not passed before the postmaster-general was threatened with a formidable rival in the form of the telephone, which assumed a. practical shape about the year 1878, the first exchange in the United Kingdom being established in

Telephones. Revenue. Expenditure. ~15' '5 El 1 i222 l.iitesand as; E Other N y _ 51 a urldings. 154' _ _ xpenditure. ct ear Postal Extra é 9' E To!“ 3 '5 J salaries, 222:2; Pachet TouL Revenue. Receipts. Receipts. _, g 5 25 3 “ages, &c. Mail, Service. ~_ . 526“ Pub END 8;: Under Under .7751“: chaSe. tion. :1 g ‘5 P. 0. other 1.4 W ‘ "E Votes. Votes. 51 £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ £ 5 1884—1885 7,808,911 382,002 198,336 8,389,249 72,464 80234 150.741 2,829,110 1,154,211 718,413 515,892 136,900 5,668,165 2,711 18130-1800 0.401.165 36.110 218.011 0.111.481 10.000 10.840 151.011 3.150.561 1.140.811 601.541 551.010 141.188 6.115-085 3.446.: 1304-1805 10.148011 —- 111.446 11.015.460 12.501 115.100 188.010 4401.355 1.105.181 120.813 011.514 118.464 1.0 5.144 3.010.116 1800—1000 11.101010 —- 101.315 11.304035 115.104 100.008 160-001 5.065.100 1.414.118 150.101 110.044 213.141 0.6.1.000 3.110.336 1000~1001 13.116856 —- 218.584 13.005410 81.040 115.000 256.118 6.211.115 1.516.850 1111.804 116.101 136.611 10064.00: 3.030.561 1005-1006 16.613440 14.36: 216.111 111064.013 15.150 150.111 311.111 1.131.010 [811.158 681.100 004.021 105.101 11.840.011 5.540.801 The total number of offices (including branch offices) was 22.088. Posmcr; STAMPS

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The unestablished staff, not entitled to pension, made up chiefly of telegraph boys, and of persons who are employed for only part of the day on post ofiice business, included 87,753 out of the grand total, and almost the whole of the sub-postmasters. The pay and prospects of almost all classes have been greatly improved since 1884, when the number stood at 91,184. The principal schemes of general revision of pay have been: 1881, Fawcett’s scheme for sorting-clerks, sorters and telegraphists (additional cost £210,000 a year), and for postmen, 1882, £110,000: Raikes’s various revisions, 1888, chief clerks and supervising ofiicers, £6230; 1890, sorting-clerks, sorters and telegraphists, £179,600; 1890, supervising force, £65,000; 1890, London sorters, £20,70b; 1891, London overseers, £9400; 1891, postmen, £125,650: Arnold Morley, 1884, London overseers, £1400, and rural auxiliaries, £20,000.

A committee was appointed in June 1895 with Lord Tweedmouth as chairman, to consider the pay and position of the post office stafi, excluding the clerical force and those employed at headquarters. The committee reported on the 15th of December 1896 and its recommendations were adopted at an immediate increased expense of [139,000 a year, which has since nsen to £500,000. In 1897 additional concessions were made at a cost of £100,000 a year.

In July 1890 a number of postmen in London went out on strike. Over 450 were dismissed in one morning, and the work of the post ofiice was carried on without interruption. The men received no sympathy from the public, and most of them were ultimately successful in their plea to be reinstated. A quasi-political agitation was carried on during the general election of 1892 by some of the London sorters, who, under the plea of civil rights, claimed the right to influence candidates for parliament by exacting pledges for the promise of parliamentary support. The leaders were dismissed, and the post office has upheld the principle that its officers are to hold themselves free to serve either party in the State without putting themselves prominently forward as political partisans. Parliament has been repeatedly asked to sanction a parliamentary inquiry to reopen the settlement of the Tweedmouth Committee, and the telegraphists have been especially active in pressing for a further committee. The rates of pay at various dates since 1881 are set out with great fullness in the Parliamentary papers (Postman, No. 237 of 1897; Sorters, Telegraphists, &c., No. 230 of 1898, and Report oft/m Select Committee on Post Oflice Sm'anls, 1907; this latter contains important recommendations for the removal of many grievances which the staff had been long agitating to have removed). '

In November 1891 an important change was made in the method

of recruiting postmen, with the object of encouraging military service, and providing situations for those who after servrng 1n the

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army or navy are_left without employment_at a comparatively early age. In makmg appomtments to the situation of postman,

For all practical purposes the history of postage stamps begins in the United Kingdom. A post-paid envelope was in common use in Paris in the year 1653. Stamped postal letter-paper (carla floslule bollala) was issued to the public by the government of the Sardinian States in November 1818, and stamped postal envelopes were issued by the same government from 1820 until 1836.1 Stamped wrappers for newspapers were made experimentally in London by Charles Whiting, under the name of “go-frees," in 1830. Four years later (June 1834), and in ignorance of what Whiting had already done, Charles Knight, the well-known publisher, in a letter addressed to Lord Althorp, then chancellor of the exchequer, recommended similar wrappers for adoption. From this suggestion apparently Rowland Hill, who is justly regarded as the originator of postage stamps, got his idea. Meanwhile, however, the adhesive stamp was made experimentally by James Chalmers in his printing-office at Dundee in August 1834.’ These experimental stamps were printed from ordinary type, and were made adhesive by a wash of gum. Chalmers had already won local distinction by his successful efforts in 1822, for the acceleration of the Scottish mails from London. Those efforts resulted in a saving of forty-eight hours on the double mail journey, and were highly appreciated in Scotland.

Rowland Hill brought the adhesive stamp under the notice of the commissioners of post office inquiry on the 13th of February 1837. Chalmers made no public mention of his stamp of 1834 until November 1837.

Rowland Hill’s pamphlet led to the appointment of a committee 0f the House of Commons on the 22nd of November 18 37, “ to inquire into the rates and modes of charging postage, with a view to such a reduction thereof as may be made without injury to the revenue.” This committee reported in favour of Hill’s proposals; and an act was passed in 1839, authorizing the treasury to fix the rates of postage, and regulate the mode of their collection, whether by prepayment or otherwise. A premium of £200 was ofl'ered for the best, and £100 for the next best, proposal for bringing stamps into use, having regard to

‘ Stamp-Collector's Magazine, v. 161 seq.; J. E. Gray, Illustrated Catalogue of Postage SlamPs, 6th ed., 167.

1 Patrick Chalmers, Sir Rowland Hill and James Chalmers, Inventor of the Adhesive Stamp (London, 1882), Passim. See also the same writer's pamphlet, entitled The Position of Sir Rowland Hill made plain (1882), and his The Adhesive Stamp: a Fresh ChaPIn in Ilre History of Post-Oflice Reform (1881). Compare Pearson Hill's tract, A Paper on Postage Stamps, in reply to Chalmers, re rinted from the Philatelic Record of l\ovcmbcr 1881. Pearson ill has therein shown conclusively the priority of ublicalion by Sir Rowland Hill. He has also given proof of James halmers's ex ress acknowledgment of that priority. But he has not weaken the evidence of the priority of invention by Chalmers.

“ (1) the convenience as regards the public use; (2) the security against forgery; (3) the facility of being checked and distinguished at the post oflice, which must ,of necessity be rapid; and (4) the expense of the production andcirculation of the stamps.” To this invitation 2600 replies were received, but 'no improvement was made upon Rowland Hill’s suggestions. ‘A further Minute, of the 26th of December 1839, announced that the treasury had decided to require that, as faras practicable, the postage of letters should be prepaid, and such prepayment effected by means of stamps. Stamped covers or wrappers, stamped envelopes, and adhesive stamps were to be issued by government. The stamps were engraved by Messrs Perkins,

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The canton of Ziirich was the first foreign state to adopt postage stamps, in 1843. The stamps reached America in the same year, being introduced by the government of Brazil. That of the United States did not adopt them until 1847; but a tentative issue was made by the post office of New York in 1845. An adhesive stamp, was also issued at St Louis in the same year, and in Rhode Island in the next. In Europe the Swiss cantons of Geneva (1844) and of Basel (1845) soon followed the example set by Zi'irich. In the Russian Empire the use of postage stamps became general in 1848 (after preliminary issues at St Petersburg and in Finland in 1845). France issued them in 1849. The same year witnessed their introduction into Tuscany, Belgium and Bavaria, and also into New South Wales. Austria, Prussia, Saxony, Spain, Italy, followed in 1850. The use of postage stamps seems to have extended to the Hawaiian Islands (1851 ) a year before it reached the Dutch Netherlands (1852). of a postage stamp in London, the known varieties, issued in all

arts of t e world, amounted to 1391. Of these 841 were of

uropean origin, 533 were American, 59 Asiatic, 55 African. The varieties of stamp issued in the several countries of Oceania were 103. Of the whole 1391 stamps no less than 811 'were already obsolete in 1865, leaving 580 still in currency.

ENGLISH Issuss
(i.) Line-engraved Stamps.

Halfpenny Stomp—First issue, October 1, 1870: size 18 mm. by 14 mm.; lake-red varying to rose-red.

One Penny Stamp—First issue, rst (for 6th) May 1840i the head executed by Frederick Heath, from a drawing by Henry Corbould of William Wyon's medal struck to commemorate-v her majest '5 visit to the City of London on the 9th of November 1837: size 22X mm. by 18} mm.; black, watermarked with a small crown; a few sheets in 1841 struck in and October 1840 in blue and blue-bac lrnperforater second issue, January 20, 18 1, differed only from the first issue as to colour—red instead of lack. It is stated ‘ that the colour, “ though always officially referred to as ‘ red,’ was reall a redbrown, and this ma be regarded 'as the normal colour; ut con

siderable variations in tone and shade (brick-red, orange-red,, lake-

red) occurred from time to time, often accentuated by the bIUefng of thgdpaper, though primarily due to a want of uniformityin the meth employed for preparing the ink." The change of colour from black was made in order to render the obliteration (now in

black instead of red ink) more distinct; imperforate. Third issue, February 1854: small crown watermark; orated 16 (1.8. 16 holes to 2 centimetres). The ourth issue, anuary 1855,

differed only from the third issue in sin issue, February 1855: from a new die, wit minute variations of engraving. In the second die the eyelid is more distinctly shaded, the nostril more curved, and the band round the hair, has a thick dark line forming its lower edge. Small crown watermark; perforated 16 and 14. Sixth issue, July 1855: large crown watermark; perforated 14; a certain number 16. Seventh issue, January 1858: carmine-rose varying from pale to very deep. Large crown watermark; perforated, chiefly 14. Eighth issue, April 1, i864:

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‘crown watermark; blue, dark blue; perforated 114.

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red, two essays were made in April ; he

perforated 14. Fifth

ywatermark heraldic emblems; ochre_brown, bright bistre. ‘issue, December 1, 1865: watermark as above; bistre-brotvn; strAw.

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ThreePence.~—All‘ perforated ' First issue, Ma 1, 1862: heraldic emblems watermarkycarmine (gale to deep). econd issue, March 1, 1865: same watermark as a ove;ioarn'iine-pink. Third

issue, July 1867: watermarked with a spray of rose; carmine-» pink, -carmine-rose. Fouth issue, July 1873' watermarklas third issue; carmine-rose. Fifth issue, January 1-, 1881*. watermark larger crown; carmi‘ne-rose. Sixth issue, Janira v1, 1883;'watermark as fifth issue; purple shades overprinted With value in deep pink.‘

Fourpenee.—~All perforated 14. First issue, July 31, 1855: watermark small garter; deep and dull carmine. Second issue, February 1856: watermark medium garter; pale carmine. Third issue, November 1, 1856: watermark medium garter; dull rose. Fourth issue, Janua 1857: watermark large garter; dull and pale to deep rose, pink. Fifth issue, January 15, 1862: watermark large garter; carmine-vermilion, vermilion-red. Sixth irsue, July 1865: watermark largegarter; pale to dark vermilion; Seventh issue, March 1, 1876: watermark large garte'r; pale vermilion. Eighth issue, February 27, 1877: watermark large‘garter; pale sage-green. Ninth, issue, Jul 1880: watermark large garter; mouse-brown. Tenth issue, anuary 1, 1881: watermark large crown; mouse~brown.

Sixpence—All perforated 14. First issue, October 21, 1856: no letters in angles; watermark heraldic emblems; dull lilac. Second issue, December 1, 1862: small white letters in angles; otherwise as first-issue. Third issue, April 1, 1865: large white letters in angles; otherwise as first issue. Fouth issue, June 1867: waters mark sprayof rose; otherwise as third issue; some in bright lilac. V Fiflh issue, March 1869: as fourth issue; lilac, deep lilac, purplelilac. Sixth issue, April 1, 1872: as fourth issue; bri ht chestnutbrown. Seventh issue, October 1872: as fourth issue; ufi. Eighth issue. Apn'l 1873: as fourth isue; greenish grey. Ninth issue, April 1, 1874,: watermarked as fourth issue; large coloured letters in angles; greenish grey. Tenth issue, January 1, 1881: large crown watermark; otherwise as ninth issue.' Eleventh issue, January 1, 1883: as tenth issue; purple, overprinted with value in deep pink. . L1“ .- - . ‘ EightPencer-September 11, 11876: watermark large garter; chromwyellow, e yellow; perforated 14. - I

NinePence.—Xll perforated 14. First issue, January 15,51862d:

econ

Third issue, October 1867: watermark spray of rose; straw. ' Tenpence.~July 1, 1867: watermark spray of rose; red-brown; perforated 14. ' ' . .

One ShiUing.—All perforated 14. First issue, November 1, 1856: watermark heraldic emblems; no letters in angles; dull green, pale to dark green. Second issue, December 1, 1862: as above; small white letters in angles; pale to dark green. Third issue, February 1865: as above; large white letters in angles; pale to dark green, bluish reen. Fourth issue, August 1867: watermark spray of rose; 0t erwise as third issue; pale to dark reen, bluish green. Fifth issue, Se tember 1873: large coloured etters in angles; otherwise as fourt issue; light to dark green, bluish reen. Sixth issue, October 14, 1880: as fifth issue; pale redrown. Seventh issue, June 15, 1881: watermark large crown; otherwise as sixth issue; pale red-brown.

Two Shillings.—-Watermark spray of rose; perforated 14. First issue, lJuly 1, 1867: pale to full blue, very deep blue. Second issue, ‘ebruary 1880: light brown.

Five Shillings—First issue, July 1, 1867: watermarked with a cross Pate; pink, pale rose; rforated 15) by 15. Second issue, Nogember 1882: watermark arge anchor; carmine-pink; perforate 1 .

Ten4Shiltings.—-First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark cross paté; green- rey; perforated 15} by 15. Second issue, February 1883: watermark arge anchor; green-grey; perforated 14.

One Pound—First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark cross pate; brown-violet; perforated 15§ by 15. Second issue, December 1882: watermark large anchor; brown-violet; perforated 14.

(iv.) After 1880.

In 1880-1881 the halfpenny, penn , three-halfpenny and twopenny surface-printed stamps super ed the line-engraved stamps of the same value, and a new surface-printed stamp of fivepence was introduced. These stamps are distinguished from the stamps already described 1) the absence of plate-numbers and (exce t in the penny stamp of check-letters in the corners; also by t e coarser style of engraving necessary for printing by machines driven b steam-power.

One atfpenny.—First issue, October 14, 1880: large crown watermark; pale reen, bluish green, dark green; perforated 14. Second issue, Apri 1, 1884: slate-blue.

One Penny.——January 1, 1880: large crown watermark; venetian red; perforated 14.

T hree-half nce.—October 14, venetian r ; rforated 14.

TwoPence.—— ecember 8, 1880: large crown watermark; pale to ve deep carmine red; perforated 14. '

Fivepence.—-March 15, 1881: large crown watermark; dark dull indi o, indigo-black; perforated 14.

The Customs and Inland Revenue Act which came into force on June 1, 1881, made it unnecessary to provide separate penny stamps for postal and fiscal purposes. By an act of 1882 (45 & 46 Vict. c. 72) it became unnecessary to provide separate stam s for postal and fiscal purposes up to and including stamps of the value of 2s. 6d. A new series was therefore issued:—

One Penny.——-All perforated 14. First issue, July 12, 1881: large crown watermark; 14 pearls in each angle; purple-lilac, purple. Second issue, December 12, 1881: as first issue; 16 pearls in each an le; pur lc.

hree- IPence.—April 1,_ 1884: large crown watermark; purple; perforated 14.

Twopence.—Ditto.

Twopence-holf enny.—Ditto.

Threepence.—— itto. 3

Fourflence.—Ditto, except in colour (sea-green). ‘

Fivepence.—As fourpence.

Sixpence—Ditto.

Nine ence.—Ditto.

One hitting—Ditto.

Two Shillings and SixPence.--July 22, 1883: watermark large anchor; purple, dull lilac, dark purple; perforated 14.

Five Shillings.——April 1, 188 : ditto; pale to ve dee carmine.

Ten ShiiitngS.—Dlt[0; pale b ue, cobalt, light to lilIull b ue.

One Pound—First issue, Agril 1, 1884: large crown watermark, 3 appearing in each stamp; rown-violet; perforated 14. Second issue, January 27, 1891: same watermark; bright green; perforated

1880: large crown watermark;

4Five Pounds.-—March 21, 1882: large anchor watermark; orangevermilion, vermilion, bright vermilion; perforated 14.

Following u n the report of a committee of officials of the General Post ffice and Somerset House, a series of new stamps, commonly known as the uJubilee" issue, was introduced on January 1. 1887, all of which between one halfpenny and one shilling exclusive were printed either in two colours or on a coloured paper, so that each stamp was printed in part in one or other of the doubly fugitive inks—green and purple.

One Halfpenny—{anuary 1, 1887: large crown watermark; orange-vermilion to right vermilion; perforated 14.

Three-halfpence.—January 1, 1887: as the halfpenny; green and purple.

Twopence.-—Ditto: green and scarlet t0 carmine.

Twopence-halfpenny.—January 1, 1887: blue paper; watermark large crown; dark purple; perforated 14.

[graphic]

Thames—January 1, 1887: yellow paper; watermarked with a large crown; urple; perforated 14.

Fourpence.— anuary 1, 1887: watermark and perforation as in threepenctahalfreen and brown.

FourPence- fpenny.—September 15, 1892: as the fourpence; green and carmine.

Fivepence.—- anuary 1, 1887: as the fourpence; purple and blue.

SixPence.— anua 1, 1887: pale red paper; watermarked with a large crown; urp e; perforated 14.

Ninepence.— anuary 1, 1887: large crown watermark; purple and blue; perforated 14.

TenPence.—February 24, 1890: as the ninepence; purple and carmine-red.

One Shilling.—January 1, 188 : as the ninepence; green.

The various fiscal stamps a mitted to postage uses, the overprinted official stamps for use by government departments, and the stamps specially surcharged for use in the Ottoman Empire, do not call for detailed notice in this article.

The distinctive tele raph stamps are as follows :—

One HalfPenny.—- pril 1, 1880: shamrock watermark; orange vermilion; perforated 14.

One Penny.—February 1, brown.

Threepence.-—Perf0rated 14. First issue, February 1, watermark spray of rose; carmine. watermark lar e crown; carmine.

Faurpence.— arch 1, 1877: sage-green; perforated 14.

Sixpence—Perforated 14. First issue, March 1, 1877: watermark spray of rose; reenish-grey. Second issue, July 1881: as first issue; watermark arge crown.

One Shilling—Perforated 14. watermark spray of rose; een. watermark spray of rose; pae red-brown. 1881 : watermark lar e crown; pale red brown.

Three Shillings.——- erforated 14; slate blue. First issue, March 1, 1877: watermark spray of rose. Second issue, August 1881: watermark large crown.

Five Shillings.—First issue, February 1, 1876: watermark cross Pate; dark to light rose;,perforated 15 by 15}. Second issue, August 1881: watermark large anchor; carmine-rose; perforated 1

1876: as the halfpenny; reddish 1876: Second issue, August 1881:

watermark large garter; pale

First issue, February 1, 1876: Second issue, October 1880:

Third issue, February

4. Ten Shillings.—March 1, 1877; watermark cross pate; green

gre ; perforated 15 by 15}. Pound—Marc 1, 1877: watermark shamrock; brownpu;ple; rforated 14. ive ounds.—March 1. 1877: watermark shamrock: orangevermilion: perforated 15} by 15.

In addition to these, there were stamps specially prepared for the army telegraphs.

Barnsn Commas AND Dernuoencnas

Australian Commonwealth—In 1905 there were 6654 post offices open; 311,401,539 letters and cards, 171,844,868 nevuspapers, book-packets and circulars, 2,168,810 parcels, and 13,680,239 telegrams were received and despatched; the revenue was {2,738,146 and the expenditure £2,720,735.

New Zealand—In 1905 there were 1937 post oflices open; 74,767,288 letters and cards, 47,334,263 newspapers, bookpackets and circulars, 392,017 parcels, and 5,640,219 telegrams were dealt with. The revenue from the post office was £410,968, and from telegraphs £273,911, while the expenditure on the post office was £302,146 and on telegraphs £276, 581.

Dominion 0f Canada.—In 1905 there were 10,879 post offices open; 331,792,500 letters and cards, 60,405,000 newspapers, book-packets and circulars, and 58,338 parcels were received and despatched. The revenue from the post office amounted to {1,053,548, and from telegraphs £28,727, while the expenditure was, on the post office £9 52,652 and on telegraphs {78,934.

Cape of Good H ope—The number of post offices open in 1905 was 1043; 7,596,600 letters and cards, 3,706,960 newspapers, book-packets and circulars, 536,800 parcels, and 6,045,228 telegrams were dealt with. The revenue from the post oflice was {423,056, and from telegraphs {206,842 the expenditure being, £4 56,171 on the post office and {27 2,863 on telegraphs.

British India.——In 1905 there were 16,033 post offices open; 597,707,867 letters and cards, 76,671,197 newspapers, bookpackets and circulars, 4,541,367 parcels, and 9,098,345 telegrams were dealt with. The revenue from the post ofiice was {1, 566,704 and from telegraphs £733,193, while the expenditure was, on the post ofiice, £1,199,557 and on telegraphs £546,914.

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