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was occasioned by the cruelty of the Culhuan king, who drove the Mexicans out of his kingdoin. They fled to Azcapotzalco, where they were received for a time, but subsequently were expelled. They then took refuge in Tenochtitlan, where they finally settled, and built the celebrated city which bears their name. Here they flourished, notwithstanding civil feuds occasioned by the encroachments of the priesthood. The people became divided into two parties, who brought great tribulation on each other; but a series of able though cruel princes finally consolidated them into one, and thus they were enabled to carry on sanguinary wars with their neighbors. They subjugated province after province, until, about the year 1500, their empire attained to the extent and wealth in which Cortez found it.

Art. V.-1. An Historical Sketch of Columbia College in the

City of New York. By N. F. MOORE. 16mo, pp. 126.

New York, 1846. 2. Statutes of Columbia College and its Associated Schools ; to

which are added the Permanent Resolutions and Orders of

the Board of Trustees. Svo, pp. 92. New York, 1866. 3. Annual Report of the Treasurer of Columbia College, with the

Report of the Managers of the Accumulating Fund. 8vo.

New York, 1868. 4. Letter to the Ilon, the Board of Trustees of the University of

Mississippi. By FREDRICK A. P. BARNARD, LL.D. 5. Prof. Barnard on Collegiate Education and College Govern

ment. 8vo, pp. 104. New York, 1855. BEFORE doing ourselves the pleasure of indicating some of the very agreeable evidences of progress presented by Columbia College during the last two or three years, we beg leave to make a few observations which, although they may seem somewhat irrelevant at first sight, yet, when considered in their bearing on the different branches of our subject, will, we trust, be found not to do any serious violence to the unities so far as the latter are governed by reason, common sense, and a proper regard for the development of truth and the overthrow of its ancient foes, narrow-mindedness and prejudice.

We trust we need hardly remind our readers, at the close of our eighteenth volume, that to no object have our editorial labors been more earnestly devoted than to the elevation of the standard of education in our colleges, and we think it is equally superfluous to remind them that in giving our impressions of the institutions of our various religious sects, none have acted in more full accordance with the maxim of the Tyrian queen. At no time were we so sanguine as to expect that we could please all; we were quite as well aware ten years ago as we are now that none ever did so who attempted to point out defects as well as merits.

Far from feeling any regret, however, after an experience of nine years we have many reasons for congratulation. In at least nineteen cases out of twenty we have been treated in the most courteous and cordial manner by chancellors of universities, presidents of colleges, and principals of seminaries, male and female. In this proportion those various institutions have cheerfully offered us every facility to enable us to form an opinion of their respective systems of education. Nor have they evinced any wrath toward us on being criticised ; or been prevented by our criticisms from again furnishing us any facilities we required. We need hardly say that it is the most accomplished educators who have evinced the most cordial willingness to be thus communicative; in other words, those who are at the heads of institutions that perform faithfully the work they undertake—those who are qualified for their positions—have no dread of criticism ; indeed, they are much more likely to invite free expressions of opinion, as we can testify from experience.

Even the most timid and retiring female educators, when conscious of their ability and of the fidelity with which they perform their work, are quite willing that any one who conducts himself properly may enter their seminaries, and give such opinions of their systems of instruction as he may think fair. Some think that the educators, male and female, of one sect are more willing to submit the results of their efforts to criticism than those of another; but we can truly say that among the competent class we have not observed the slightest difference in this respect. We have found the accomplished

Catholic instructor just as willing to have the work he performs for the public put to the test as the Protestant instructor. Proverbial as the nuns are in all parts of the world for their retiring habits, those of them engaged in education, and qualified for their positions, have the good sense to understand that those whom they expect to send them their children should have an opportunity of deriving what aid they can from the opinions of others in forming an estimate of the instructions their children are to receive. Accordingly, many of those estimable ladies, while fully aware of our not being a Catholic, have done us the honor, not only of expressing their cheerful willingness that we should visit their institutions whenever we felt disposed, but of cordially inviting us and urging us to go, without any request on our part; and in those instances in which we have availed ourselves of the privilege we have been most courteously afforded every facility to form a correct opinion of their schools. If we have ever abused this privilege, we ask when or where?

Nor have we had any different experience of those respectable seminaries or schools for young ladies, whether in city or country, which are in charge of competent laymen or clergymen of any denomination. Thus, for example, the Rev. Dr. Van Norman, principal of a first-class female institute in this city, has proved more than once that he had no apprehension that we would do any injustice to himself, his corps of instructors, or his students. His chief reason was, that he felt conscious of having done his work well; and it afforded us pleasure to testify how well-founded and honest that consciousness was. We felt bound to inform our readers after our last visit that, apart from other agreeable evidences of high culture, it had never been our privilege to have heard interesting passages in the Æneid of Virgil more elegantly or more correctly translated than by the young ladies of Dr. Van Norman's own class.* We have been honored with similar invitations by the president of the Rutgers Female College, and by the lady principals of the Ferris Female Institute.

These remarks have been suggested to us by a somewhat remarkable contrast which we have lately observed. On a certain day, some weeks ago, we wrote two notes, one addressed to the Rev. Dr. Barnard, S.T.D., president of Columbia College; the other to the Rev. Father Shea, S.J., president of Fordham College. The purport of one was exactly the same as that of the other—a request to be allowed the privilege of being present at some of the recitations of the students, as we wished to have something to say in our next number on one or more of our local institutions. This was nothing new on our part; it was in accordance with the promise we made in the first prospectus we ever issued, as may be seen from the following paragraph which we copy from it:

* Vide N. Q. R., for March, 1868, pp. 391–393. VOL. XVIII.-NO. XXXVI, 20

"Education in every form, including art and science, will receive prominent and friendly attention; and whatever seems calculated to retard or vitiate it, whether under the name of a text-book, a painting, a seminary, a gallery, or a college, will be subjected to fearless but fair and temperate criticism."

Personally, both gentlemen were equally unknown to us. We had not long to wait for the reply of Dr. Barnard, which was all we could have desired, and all that should bave been expected from an experienced and accomplished educator; but to this day Father Shea has not deigned even to acknowledge the receipt of our communication. We are not in the least offended at this, but speak of it in perfect good humor, sine ullo maleficio; if we have any feeling in regard to it, it is one of pity.

Perhaps it is natural enough that, in certain cases, those who are criticised—no matter how mildly the thing has been done should think, or at least pretend to think, that the critic has been actuated by some wicked motive or other. Well, it may be remembered that we once ventured to express the opinion that if the good professors of Fordham paid less attention to billiards and other gaming apparatus, and more to books, those who send them their sons to be educated might have more reason to thank them. We had also been once guilty of visiting the college incognito; but there were extenuating circumstances in our case. We went without saying anything about reviews or any other publications, because we were informed that nobody

known to be in the habit of publishing his opinions would be allowed to see the curiosities of that institution, without being armed with a document, from some orthodox person, certifying that there would be nothing but praise—and that in the superlative degree. We were assured that even to hint that there was any other college superior, or even equal, to Fordham was an unpardonable offence, and we did not relish the notion of asking any one to certify for us that we would stultify ourselves in this manner,

It is due to Father Shea, who, we doubt not, is a good clergyman, that we should confess these little matters, but we think he should have remembered in our favor that even when we did visit his college incognito we gave the institution full time to improve its reputation before we published one word on the subject. At least twelve months had elapsed from the day of our visit before we even alluded to the facts which we learned from it; although we admit that the chief reason of our reticence was that it seemed almost a pity to blame pious, wellmeaning men for not doing what it was evident they were utterly incapable of. This faculty, thought we, may have superior faculties for sending people to heaven; but their faculties for teaching even the ordinary branches of education are very slender indeed, although it is fair to say that we met with two exceptions to the general barrenness—one was the professor of music, the other the champion billiard-player. Both these gentlemen seemed highly accomplished, and we have since been informed by much more competent judges than ourselves that they have few if any rivals in their respective spheres among the numerous professors of American colleges.

It was in vain we assured Father Shea that we would do no injury either to student or professor from the time we entered the college until we left it; to this we added that we were very willing to believe that he had made important improvements in the college, as somebody had lately affirmed; and that it would afford us pleasure to estimate those improvements at their full value. But all would not do; it seems the good father was reininded of the fable of the fox and the goose!

St. Xavier's College in this city has not quite so great a

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