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been cultivated ; and it is likewise cer- death would incline him to preserve tain that the inhabitants of Sussex have him from dying before he was conbeen sometimes mentioned as remark- verted; and accordingly we find, that, able for brutality.

when the castle was yielded, he took From Sussex he went often to Lon- care to procure him a commodious don, where, in 1643, he preached three lodging; when he was to have been times before the parliament, and re- unseasonably removed, he attempted to turning in November to Colchester, to 'shorten a journey which he knew would keep the monthly fast there, as was his be dangerous; when the physician was cuítom, he obtained a convoy of sixteen disgusted by Chillingworth's diftruft, Soldiers, whose bravery or good fortune he prevailed upon him, as the sympwas such, that they faced and put to toms grew more dangerous, to renew fight more than two hundred of the his vifits; and when death left no King's forces.

other act of kindness to be practised, In this journey, he found Mr. Chil. procured him the rites of burial, which lingworth in the hands of the parlia- tome would have denied him. ment's troops, of whose ficknels and Having done thus far justice to the death he

gave the account which has humanity of Cheynel, it is proper to been fufficiently made known to the enquire how far he deserves blame. Jearned world by Dr. Maizeaux, in his He appears to have extended none of life of Chillingworth.

that kindness to the opinions of ChilWith regard to this relation, it may lingworth which he fewed to his be observed, that it is written with an perton; for he interprets every word air of fearless veracity, and with the in the worst sense, and seems indu{pirit of a man who thinks his cause itrious to discover in every line herelies juft, and his behaviour without re- which might have escaped for ever any proach; nor does there appear any rea- other apprehenfion; he appears always fon for doubting that Cheynel spoke fufpicious of some latent malignity, and acted as he relates. For he does and ready to persecute what he only not publith an apology but a challenge, fufpe&ts, with the fame violence as and writes not so much to obviate ca- if it had been openly avowed; in all lumnies, as to gain from others that his proceedure he lhews himself sincere, applanse which he seems to have be- but without candour. ktowed very liberally upon himself, for

About this time Cheynel, in purhis behaviour on that occasion.

fuance of his natural ardour, attended Since, therefore, this relation is cre- the army under the command of the dible, a great part of it being supported Earl of Effex, and added the praise of by evidence which cannot be refuted, valour to that of learning; for he diDr. Maizeaux seems very justiy, in his ftinguished himself so much by his

perlife of Chillingworth, to oppose the fonal bravery, and obtained fo much common report, that his life was short- skill in the science of war, that his ened by the inhumanity of those to commands were obeyed by the coloneis whom he was a prisoner; for Cheynel with as much respect as those of the appears to have preserved, amidtt ali his general. He seerns indeed to have been deteitation of the opinions which he born a soldier; for he had an intrepidiimputed to him, a great kindness to ty which was never to be shaken by his person, and veneration for his ca- any danger, and a spirit of enterprise pacity; por does he appear to have been not to be discouraged by dificulty; cruel to him, otherwise than by that which were supported by an unusual inceffant importunity of difputation, degree of bodily strength. His ferto which he was doubtless incited by a vices of all kinds were thought of so fincere belief of the danger of his soul, much importance by the parliament, if he fold die without renouncing that they betlowed upon hin the living fome of his opinions.

of Petworth, in Suffex. This living The fame' kindness, which made was of the value of zool. per annum, him defirous to convert him before his from which tey had ejected a man

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remarkable for his loyalty; and, there- Mr. Cheynel. They continued for fore, in their opinion, not worthy of some weeks to hold their meetings resuch revenues. And it may be en- gularly, and to admit great numbers

, quired, whether, in accepting this pre- whom curiosity, or a defire of conferment, Cheynel did not violate the viction, or compliance with the preprotestation which he makes in the vailing party, brought thither. But passage already recited, and whether their tranquility was quickly difturbed he did not fuffer his resolution to be by the turbulence of the independents

, overborn by the temptations of wealth. whose opinions then prevailed among

In 1646, when Oxford was taken by the soldiers, and was very industriouly the forces of the parliament, and the propagated by the discourses of Wu. reformation of the University was re- liam Earbury, a preacher of great refolved, Mr. Cheynel was sent with fix putation among them, who one day others to prepare the way for a visita- gathering a considerable number of his tion; being authorised by the parlia- most zealous followers went to the ment to preach in any of the churches, house appointed for the resolution of without regard to the right of the scruples, on a day which was set apart members of the University, that their for a difquisition of the dignity and doctrine might prepare their hearers office of a minister, and began to diffor the changes which were intended. pute with great vehemence againt the

When they arrived at Oxford, they presbyterians, whom he denied to have began to execute their commiflion by any true ministers among them, and pofielling themselves of the pulpits; whose assemblies he affirmed not to be but if the relation of Wood* is to be the true church. He was opposed with regarded, were heard with very little equal heat by the prefbyterians, and veneration. Those who had been ac

at length they agreed to examine the customed to the preachers of Oxford, point another day, in a regular dispa

, and the liturgy of the church of Eng- tation. Accordingly, they appointed land, were offended at the emptiness the twelfth of November for an eof their discourses, which were noify quiry, whether in the Cbriftian church the and unmeaning; at the unusual ge- office of minifter is committed t9 any partie ftures, the wild distortions, and the cular persons. uncouth tone with which they were On the day fixed the antagonists apdelivered; at the coldness of their peared, each attended by great numbers prayers for the King, and the vehe- but when the question was proposed, mence and exuberance of those which they began to wrangle, not about the they did not fail to utter for the blessed doctrine which they had engaged concils and actions of the parliament examine, but about the terms of the and army; and, at what was surely not propofition, which the independent 3 to be remarked without indignation, ledged to be changed since their agtet their omission of the Lord's Prayer. ment; and at length the soldiers it

But power easily supplied the want fifted that the queftion should be of reverence, and they proceeded in whether those who call themjelves mine ko their plan of reformation; and think- have more right or pouver to preach ing sermons not so efficacious to con- gospel than any other man that is a Chr verlion as private interrogatories and flian. This question was debated for exhortations, they eitablished a weekly some time with great vehemence and meeting for frezing tender consciences confufion, but without any prospett of from dirnple, at a house, that, from the a conclufion. At length, one of the butiness to which it was appropriated, soldiers, who thought they had a was called the Scruple-fr.op.

equal right with the

reft to engage in liith this project they were so well the controversy, demanded of the prelpleafedt, that they sent to the parliament byterians whence they themselves rean account of it, which was afterwards ceived their orders, whether from biprinted, and is ascribed by Wood to shops or arty other persons. This


* Vide Wood's Hilt. Antiq. Oson.

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inexpected interrogatory put them to esteem by others, and formerly by myStyreat difficulties; for it happened that self. For I now declare, that I know :Ehey were all ordained by the bishops, nothing, and am nothing, nor would avhich they durft not acknowledge, for I be thought of otherwise than as an time ear of exposing themselves to a general enquirer and seeker." ht, censure; and being convicted from their He then advanced his former po.)wn declarations, in which they had fition in stronger terms, and with admacrequently condemned episcopacy, as ditions equally detestable, which Cheynos montrary to christianity; nor durft they nel attacked with the vehemence,

madeny it, because they might have been which, in so warm a temper, such horrid boconfuted, and must at once have funk affertions might naturally excite. The miento contempt. The soldiers, seeing dispute, frequently interrupted by the muzie heir perplexity, insulted them, and clamours of the audience, and tumults cevent away boasting of their victory: raised to disconcert Cheynel, who was si la tor did the presbyterians for some time very unpopular, continued about four ind i ecover spirit enough to renew their hours, and then both the controvertists cat neetings, or to proceed in the work of grew weary, and retired. The presby, baling consciences.

terians afterwards thought they should Earbury, exulting at the victory more speedily put an end to the heresies hich not his own abilities, but the of Earbury by power than by argument, ubtilty of the foldier, had procured and, by foliciting General Fairfax, im, began to vent his notions of every procured his removal. ind without fcruple, and at length Mr. Cheynel published an account

Merted, that the Saints had an equal of this dispute, under the title of Faith bra deasure of the divine nature with our Sa- triumphing over Error and Herefy in a

viour, though not equally manifeft. At Revelation, &c. nor can it be doubted ne same time he took upon him the but he had the victory, where his cause ignity of a prophet, and began to gave him so great superiority. tter predictions relating to the affairs Somewhat before this his captious f England and Ireland.

and petulant disposition engaged him in His prophecies were not much re- a controversy, from which he could not arded, but his doctrine was censured expect to gain equal reputation. Dr.

the presbyterians in their pulpits; Hammond had not long before pubnd Mr. Cheynel challenged him to a lished his Practical Catechism, in which isputation, to which he agreed, and at Mr. Cheynel, according to his custom,

is first appearance in St. Mary's church found many errors, implied if not 1012 Adressed his audience in the following asserted, and, therefore, as it was much ranner:

read, thought it convenient to censure “ Christian friends, kind fellow- it in the pulpit. Of this Dr. Hammond Oldiers, and worthy students, I, the being informed, desired him, in a letter. bumble servant of all mankind, am this to communicate his objections; to im ay drawn, against my will, out of my which Mr. Cheynel returned an answer cheerl, into this public affembly, by the written with his usual temper, and

ouble chain of accusation and a chal- therefore somewhat perverse. The nge from the pulpit; I have been controversy was drawn out to a con-harged with heresy, I have been chal-fiderabie length, and the papers on both renged to come hither in a letter writ. fides were afterwards made public by en by Mr. Francis Cheynel. Here Dr. Hammond. hen I stand in defence of myself and In 1647, it was determined by paray doctrine, which I shall introduce liament that the reformation of Oxvith only this declaration, that I claim ford Tould be more vigorously carried not the office of a minister on account on; and Mr. Che; nel was nominated f any outward call, though I formerly one of the visitors. The general process eceived ordination, nor do I boast of of the vilitation, the firmness and fidelity Mumination, or the knowledge of our of the students, the address by which aviour, though I have been held in the enquiry was delayed, and the



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steadiness with which it was opposed, language, and at last commanded the which are very particularly related by soldiers to take her up in her chair, Wood, and after him by Walker, it is and carry her out of doors

. Her not neceffary to mention here, as they daughters, and some other gentlewomen relate not more to Dr. Cheynei's life that were with her were afterwards than to those of his associates.

treated in the same manner; one of There is indeed some reason to be- whom predicted, without dejection, lieve that he was more active and viru- that the should enter the house again lent than the rest, because he appears with less difficulty, at some other time; to have been charged in a particular nor was she much mistaken in her conmanner with some of their most ụn. jecture, for Dr. Fell lived to be restored juftifiable measures. He was accused to his deanery. of proposing that the members of the At the reception of the Chancellor, Univerity Thould be denied the affift- Cheynel, as the most accomplished of ance of council, and was lampooned by the visitors, had the province of presentnaine as a madman, in a satire written ing him with the enligns of his office

, on the visitation.

some of which were counterfeit, and One action, which shews the violence addressing him with a proper oration of his temper, and his disregard both of Of this speech, which Wood has prehumanity and decency, when they served, I shall give some passages, by came into competition with his pafliors, which a judgement may be made of must not be forgotten. The visitors. his oratory. being offended at the obftinacy of Dr. Of the staves of the beadles he cb Fell, Dean of Christ Church, and Vice- serves, “ that some are stained wit chancellor of the University, having double guilt, that some are pale wat fint deprived him of the vice-chancel- fear, and that others have been made louin, determined afterwards to dif- use of as crutches, for the support of poflcis him of his deanery; and, in the bad causes and desperate fortunes;" and course of their proceedings, thought it he remarks of the book of itatole proper to seize upon his chambers in which he delivers, that " the ignorant the college. This was an act which may perhaps admire the fplendour of most men would willingly have referred the cover, but the learned knew that to the officers to whom the law alligned the real treasure is within." Of thefe it; but Cheynel's fury prompted him ewo sentences it is easily discovered

, to a different conduct. He, and three that the first is forced and unnatural, more of the visitors went and demanded and the second trivial and low. aumiflion, which being fteadily refused Soon afterwards Mr. Cbeynel 2 them, they obtained by the aliiftance of admitted to the degree of Bachelor of a file of foldiers, who forced the doors Divinity, for which his grace had beca with pick-axes. Then entering, they denied him in 1641, and as he the saw Mirs. Fell in the lodgings, Dr. Fell suffered for an ill-timed- affertion of being in prison at London, and ordered the Presbyterian doctrines, he obtained her to quit them; but found her not that his degree should be dated from more obsequious than her husband. the time at which he was refused it; an They repeated their orders with me. honour, which, however, did not fecurs naces, but were not able to prevail upon him from being soon after publicis her to remove. They then retired, reproached as a madman. and left her exposed to the brutality of But the vigour of Dr. Cheyne wa the foldiers, whom they commanded to thought by his companions to deferit keep pofleflion; which Mrs. Fell how- profit as well as honour; and Di ever did not leave. About nine days Bailey, the President of St. John's afterwards the received another visit of College, being not more obedient to the fame kind from the new chancellor, the authority of the parliament than the the Earl of Pembroke; who having, relt, was deprived of his revenues and like others, ordered her to depart with authority, with which Mr. Cheynd out cucct, treated her with reproachful was immediately invested; who, with


his usual coolness and modeliy, took to be recorded with greater commendapossession of the lodgings soon after, by tion. About this time, many Socinian breaking open the doors.

writers began to publish their notions This preferment being not thought with great boldness, which the Prefbyadequate to the deserts or abilities of terians considering as heretical and Mr. Cheynel, it was, therefore, desired impious, thought it necesary to conby the committee of parliament, that fute; and, therefore, Cheynel, who the visitors would recommend him to had now obtained his doctor's degree, the lectureship of divinity founded by was desired in 1649 to write a vindicaThe Lady Margaret. To recommend tion of the doctrine of the Trinity, him and to choose was at that time the which he periormed, and published the fame; and he had now the pleasure of next year. propagating his darling doctrine of pre- He drew up likewise a confutatione destination, without interruption, and of fome Socinian tenets advanced by without danger.

John Fry, a man who spent great part Being thus flushed with power and of his life in ranging from one religion fuccefs, there is little reason for doubt. to another, and who fat as one of the ing that he gave way to his natural judges on the King; but was expelled vehemence, and indulged himself in afterwards from the House of Comshe utmost exceffes of raging zeal, by mons, and disabled from fitting in parwhich he was indeed so much dittin- liament. Dr. Cheynel is said to have guished, that, in a fatire mentioned by thewn himself evidently fuperior to tim Wood,he is dignified by the title of Arch- in the controversy, and was answered visitor; an appellation which he seems to by him only with an opprobrious book, have been induftrious to deferre by feve- against the Presbyterian clergy. sity and inflexibility: for, not contented Of the remaining part of his life with the commission which he and his there is found only an obfcure and colleagues had already received, he confused account. He quitted the procured fix or seven of the members prelidentship of St. John's, and the of parliament to meet privately in Mr. professorship, in 1650, as Calamy reRouse's lodgings, and assume the stile lates, because he would not take the and authority of a committee, and from engagement; and gave a proof that he them obtained a more extensive and could fuffer as weil as act in a cause tyrannical power, by which the visitors which he believed fuit. We have inwere enabled to force the folemn League deed no reason to question his resoluand Covenant, and the negative oaih, tion, whatever occafion might be given upon all the members of the University, to exert it; nor is it probable that he and to prosecute those for a contempe feared affliction more than danger, or who did not appear to a citation, at that he would not have borne persecu whatever distance they might be, and tion himself for those opinions which whatever reasons they might asign for inclined him to persecute others. their absence,

He did not suiker much on this occaBy this method he easily drore great fion; for he retained the living of Petnumbers from the University, whose worth, to which he thence-forward places he supplied with men of his own confined his labours, and where he was opinions, whom he was very induftricus very affiduous, and, as Calamy affirms, to draw from other parts, with promises very successful in the exercise of his miof making a liberal provision for them nistry; it being his peculiar character out of the spoils of heretics and ma- to be warm and zealous in all his lignants.

undertakings. Having in time almost extirpated This heat of his disposition, increafed those opinions which he found fo pre- by the uncommon turbulence of the valcnt at his arrival, or at least obliged time in which he lived, and by the those who would not recant to an opposition to which the unpopular naappearance of conformity, he was at ture of some of his employments exleisure for employments which deferve pofed him, was at luit heightened to


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