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Nelson's Perpetual Loose-Leaf Encyclopaedia
A. The original sound in English of the letter A was, of course, that which it had in the Greek and Latin tongues. In most European languages (French, German, Welsh, etc.) it has retained this value, and occasionally also in English words (e.g., 'psalm'). This should always be its value in scientific notation (so Murray's Dictionary); it is phonetically described as the mid-back 'wide' vowel. Of the other values which A has now acquired in English, that in the word 'man' is a characteristic English sound (symbolized by Murray as if). The 'rounding' into & (Murray, Q), as in 'tall' and 'water,' has many parallels. Quite unnecessary confusion has been caused by allowing A to assume the value of its modern name (61 in Murray), which properly belongs to the symbol e (which see). In the early Semitic alphabet A had a slight consonantal sound, known as the glottal stop, which showed a marked tendency to disappear.
A is the standard Greek form transmitted to the Latin alphabet. The Greek uncial & is no doubt a modification of this, although more like the old Semitic form Jf.~ a is its Latin representative; written cursively, it becomes a. The early Semitic form has changed more in the Semitic than in the European alphabets. The horns in the Hebrew N are the remains of the two cross strokes; the Arabic I has lost even these. The name aUph, Greek alpha, means an "ox." Some think the original sign represents a head and horns.
A is in musical notation the sixth note of the natural diatonic scale of C. and the first note of the relative minor scale; called la in Italy, France, and Spain. In conceit pitch, A has about 9OO vibrations per second, or a multiple of that number. Continental tuning forks are set to this note. Most stringed instruments have a string tuned to it, which in the violin is the second string, in the viola and violoncello the first, and in the contrabasso generally the third. It is the note given for tuning the orchestra. The key of A major has three sharps.
A, as a symbol of order or eminence, denotes the first of a series, or the chief of a class.
A. in the calendar, is the first of the seven dominical letters.
In old books of which only the alternate pages are numbered it denotes left-hand pages.
A as a symbol in logic is the universal affirmative. A, as an abbreviation, denotes many words of which it is the initial letter— e.g., American (a.a.a.s.), anno (a.d.), ante (a.m.), Antiquaries (f.s.a.), nriiitiH or arts (b.a.).
In medical formulae A or aa (Gr. ana) signifies that equal parts of each ingredient are to be taken; in Roman antiquities it stands for absolw ('I acquit') on the judge's tablet; in textual notes on the Old and New Testaments it denotes the Codex Alexandrinus. See AlPhabet.
A 1, a term used in the classification of vessels to denote firstclass condition and equipment after inspection. See Lloyd's.
Aa ('water' or 'stream'), name of many rivers in France, Switzerland, and Russia. Alternative forms are Ach, Aach, Achen.
Aachen. See Arx La Cha
Aal, red dye obtained from the root of Morinda citrifolia (allied to madder), used largely for dyeing cotton cloth in India. The centre of the industry is at Gujarat.
Aalborg, city and port in Northeast Jutland. Denmark, on Liim Fjord, at the entrance to the Kattegat. It is an important railroad and commercial centre, and a bishopric. Two bridges across the fjord connect it with Norre Sundby. There are some seventeenth-century stone houses (notably the Apothecary's House), but the town as a whole is modern in aspect. There are large cement works and a nautical school. Pop. 35.000.
Aalen, town, WUrtemberg. Germany, on the Kocher, 48 m. northeast of Stuttgart. It has iron works, woollen mills, etc. Pop. 10,000.
Aalfsiiinl. town and fishing port, Romsdal county, Norway, on two islands of the west coast, Norvo and Aspo, connected by a bridge. Ithasanexcellentharbor. It was destroyed by fire in 1904, but has been practically rebuilt in stone. Pop. (1910) 13,836.
Aall Pasha, Mehemet Emin (1815-71), Turkish statesman, was born in Constantinople; Turkish ambassador to London (1840-4); Foreign Minister (184652); represented Turkey at the
Congress of Paris (1856); took part in suppressing the Cretan rebellion (1867-8); and brought about the submission of the Khedive of Egypt (1869). He was five times grand vizier, and an ardent advocate of reform.
Aalst. See Alost.
Aar, or Aare, Swiss river; rises in canton Bern in the Grimsel at about 6,250 ft. It traverses Lakes Brienz, Thun, and Bienne, and is navigable after its emergence from the Lake of Thun at the town of that name. It flows past Meiringen, Interlaken, Bern, Solothurn, and Aarau; and augmented by the waters of the Limmat and the Reuss, enters the Rhine near Waldshut. Its length is 175 miles. Canalization work has been undertaken in several portions of the course.
Aarau, capital of canton Aargau, Switzerland, on the Aar, 50 miles northeast of Bern, 1,300 ft. above sea level. It is a railroad junction, a military station, and an important manufacturing centre for silk, cotton, tile, ribbon, cement, railroad material, bells, and cannon. After the French seizure of Switzerland (1798), Aarau was the capital of the Helvetic Republic, but in 1803 was made capital of the newly constituted Swiss canton of Aargau (q.v.). Pop. (1910) 9.536.
Aard-vark ('earth-pig'). See Cape Ant-eater.
Aard-wolf (Proteles cristalus), a burrowing, nocturnal animal, closely related to the hyaena. It is confined to South Africa, and feeds on carrion and insects.
Aarestrup, Carl Ludwig Emil (1800-56), Danish lyric poet, was born in Copenhagen; practised as a doctor. His Efterladte Digte (1863) created a sensation by their erotic tone. His Samlede Digte were edited by Georg Brandes.
Aargau (French Argovie), a canton of Switzerland, south of the Rhine. Area, 542 sq. m., of which 95 per cent, is productive. There are extensive vineyards and fruit is largely cultivated. The chief manufactures are cottons, silks, straw hats, and tobacco. At Baden and Schinznach are noted sulphur springs, and at Windisch (ancient Vindinissa) are Roman remains. Its capital is Aarau (q. v.). Pop. (1910) 229,850: 222,571 being German-speaking.
Aarhus, or AARRUVS, port on east coast and largest city of Jutland, Denmark, 22 m. southeast of Randers, with a good harbor, generally ice-free. It is a railroad junction and an important trading centre, and has manufactures of machinery.glass. and cement. There are steamer connections with Copenhagen and England. Exports grain, flour, butter, cattle, pork, beef; imports coal, iron, petroleum, and maize. Pop. 58.00O.
Aaron, the elder brother, colleague and interpreter of Moses. According to the Pentateuch, he was consecrated to the highpriesthood (Ex. xxviii., xxix.; Lev. viii.), and was consequently regarded as the ancestor of all lawful priests in Israel. Though always second to Moses, he was joined with him in the performance of miracles (Ex. vii. 19f.; viii. 5f.); his budding rod was deposited in the Ark (Heb. ix. 4). His great sin was the making of the golden calf (Ex. xxxii. 4); for a subsequent fault he was denied entrance into Canaan (Num. xx. 8-13), and died, aged 123, on Mount Hor, in Edom (Num. xx. 23-29), being succeeded by his third son, Eleazar. See Moses.
Aaron's Beard, the name of two different plants— Hypericum calycinum ('rose of Sharon'), so named because of the tufted, beardlike stamens of its yellow flowers; and Saxifraga sarmentosa ('mother of thousands'), a Chinese plant, often seen hanging at cottage windows.
Aaron's Tomb ( Kabr Harun), on east peak (4.360 fcetlof Mount Hor, is, according to ancient tradition, the place where Aaron was buried. It is alluded to by Josephus (Antiquities, iv. 4), and is a place of pilgrimage. See Hor.
Aasen, Ivar Andreas (181396), Norwegian philologer and author, was of peasant origin, and self-educated. In 1848 hisNorske Folkesprogs Grammatik was published, and his Ordbog over del Norske Folkesprog in 1850. Aasen reconstructed an eclectic 'national' language (Landsmaal) out of the existing Norwegian dialects; his efforts in this direction being chiefly concentrated upon a grammar ( Norsk Grammatik, 1864), a dictionary ( Norsk Ordbog, 18731, which has been supplemented by the Norsk Ordbog (1890-2) of Hans Ross,and the publication of original poems.
Aasvar Islands, near the Arctic Circle, west of Norway about 10 miles. It has important herring fisheries.
A. ii.. Bachelor of Arts. See Degree.
Ab, in Jewish calendar, fifth month of the ecclesiastical and eleventh of .the civil year; part of our July and August. The 9th of Ab was set aside to commemorate the destruction of the Temple (586 B.c. and 70 A.D.)
Ababdeh, pastoral Arab Mohammedan tribe living in the hilly district about the frontiers of Upper Egypt and Nubia, between the Red Sea and the Nile. They are Hamites, and in color are deep brown to black.
Abaca, or Abaka. See MaNila Hemp.
Abaco, Great, or Lucaya (80 m. by 20 m.), one of the Bahama Islands, east of Great Bahama. Pop. 3,314.- Little Abaco is northwest of Great Abaco. See Bahamas.
Abacull, small cubes of colored glass, enamel, stone, or other material, used in marquetry and mosaic work.
Abacus, an instrument to facilitate calculation, used by the ancient Greeks, Romans. Egyptians, Hindus, and Mexicans. It consists of a board in which parallel grooves are cut to contain pebbles, or a rectangular frame of wires on which beads are strung. The latter form exists in the tschotii of Russia and the suan-pan of China, and is used for teaching arithmetic.
Abacus, in architecture, a flat stone, square, octagonal, or circular, and either plain or variously ornamented, placed above the capital of a column.
Abaddon, Hebrew word for 'ruin' or 'destruction.' Though sometimes used in this general sense (Job xxxi. 12), it is often equivalent to Sheol, the place of the dead (Prov. xv. 11), or, more particularly, that of the lost. Sometimes it is personified, as in Job xxviii. 22; while in Rev. ix. 1 it is the name of the 'angel of the abyss,' and is interpreted as Apollyon ('the destroyer'), made familiar by Bunyan in his Pilgrim's Progress.
Abakansk, town, Yeniseisk, Siberia, near the junction of the Abakan with the Yenisei River. There are coal mines and iron works, and ancient tombs. The town has considerable trade in furs. Pop. 2,000.
Abalone, a flatly coiled mollusk (Haliotidae) of the sea-coast; numerous in Southern California. The shell is used as mother-ofpearl, and the flesh is dried and eaten. Many species occur in all warm seas.
Abana (amanah) and PharPar, rivers of Damascus (2 Kings v. 12), now the Barada (a branch of which is still called the Baniaa),
flowing through the city, and the Awaj, to the south of the Damascus plain. Some identify the Pharpar with the Barbar, a south tributary of the Barada.
Abancay, town, in a silvermining district in Peru, the chief city in Apurimac department, about 40 m. southwest of Cuzco. on the Abancay River. Its chief industry is sugar refining, as it is situated in a rich sugar-growing district. Other products are maize, fruit, barley, potatoes, and vegetables. Pop. 5,000.
Abancourt,Charles Xavier Joseph D' (1758-92), a supporter of Louis xvi. in the French Revolution. He was made Minister of War (June, 1792), and was killed at Versailles by the populace.
Abandonment. The leaving of a person or persons to whom one is legally bound, or the relinquishment of property or rights, with the intention of not returning to such person or persons, or of not reclaiming such property or rights. Abandonment or exposure of an infant with intent to cause its death is murder, if death ensues; and in general a desertifln which results in injury to the person abandoned is punishable as a misdemeanor, both at common law and under modern statutes. Abandonment ot wife and family has in many of the United States been made a penal offence, and is in most States a ground for divorce. Abandonment of patent occurs when an inventor fails either to punish infringements or to obtain a patent for his invention. The term is also used in connection with mining claims, easements, and public rights of way. See Desertion.
Abano, watering place, prov. Padua, Italy, foot of Euganean Hills, 6 m. southwest of Padua. Its hot saline springs (98 to 181° F.) were known to the Romans. A statue of Hercules or Nero was excavated here. Pop. 5.0OO.
Abano, Pietro in (125O1316), physician, was born in Padua. He became professor of medicine at Padua. He was a disciple of Averrhoes. and given to the study of alchemy and astrology. He was brought before the Inquisition on a charge of heresy, and condemned to death, but died before the sentence could be carried out. His most famous work is Conciliator Differentiarum qute inter Philosophoset Medicos versantur(\472).
Abarbanel. See Abravanel.
Abarlm ('those on the other side'), a range of highlands east of the Dead Sea, containing Pisgah, where Moses viewed the
Promised Land (Num. xxi. 20; xxiii. 14; Deut. xxxiv. 1); and, 2 miles to the east, Mount Nebo, 'the lonely mountain,' where Moses died and was buried (Deut. xxxii. 49; xxxiv. 1).
Abasa, or Abasins, Circassian tribe, of Indo-European origin, .skin to the people of Abkhasia. They were originally Christians. Abasia. See Abkhasia. Abatement, in law, is the interruption or suspension of a legal claim. Abatement of suit is the suspension of a proceeding at law or in equity owing to the lack, from death or otherwise.of proper parties to go on with it. The defect may be cured by the substitution of the legal representative of the defaulting party, when the action revives.
Abatement of nuisance is the forcible removal by the injured party of an inconvenience constituting an infringement of bis property rights. Such removal is legally permissible if accomplished without unnecessary damage or disturbance.
Abatement of freehold is the suspension of a lawful seisin of land through the wrongful entry of a stranger thereon in the interval between the death of the owner and the entry of his lawful successor to the inheritance. It is terminated by the entry of the latter.
Abatement of legacies or debts is the scaling down of legacies or debts, owing to the insufficiency of the assets of a testator to discharge them in full.
A plea in abatement, in the common-law system of pleading, involves not the merits of the case, but the completeness or correctness of the writ. If successful, such plea quashes or abates the action, and compels the plaintiff to begin over again. Abatis, a fortification made by felling trees, stripping them of their smaller branches, and securing them with the sharpened trunks in the earth and the branches pointing upward and outward toward the enemy.
Abattoir (French abaltre, 'to slaughter'), a slaughter-house for cattle and other animals used for food. An abattoir should be on the outskirts of a city or other location that will allow for extension; and should be close to a plentiful water supply, main thoroughfares, and railroads. It must include accommodation for penning, killing, dressing, cooling, inspection of suspected animals and meat; offices, and various buildings for the treatment of the feet, intestines, and blood. The slaughter room and the pen should be so arranged
that living animals shall not be frightened by the smell of blood, and that animals led in for slaughter shall not see traces of those just killed. The walls and floors, therefore, should be smooth and impervious, to prevent absorption, and to admit of thorough cleansing. The offal is usually removed in trucks or in barges, to be used as manure; and in the best conducted establishments, practically every part of the animal is used. A public health officer and a veterinary surgeon always supervise the operation of a good abattoir, and in the United States, government officials inspect meat for interstate or foreign trade.
In Europe, abattoirs are commonly owned or controlled by the public authorities; in the United States, by private companies. The first abattoirs were those of Paris, established in 1818, on the recommendation of the Commission of 1810. In Austria, the movement was begun in 1850 with the erection of a large abattoir in Vienna; and Prussia followed in 1888 with a law requiring such buildings, which had considerable effect on legislation in the other German states. Public abattoirs are now common in France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and Russia; but it is only recently that they have been actively promoted in Great Britain. Typical abattoirs are those in Chicago, in Paris (105 acres), and in Dresden (1910; 68 separate buildings). See Meat; Packing Industry. Consult Schwarz' Abattoirs and Cattle Markets (1903); Cash's Our Slaughter-House System (1907); Ayling's Public Abattoirs (1908).
Abauilt, FlRMIN (1679-1767), was born in Uzds, France. He fled to Geneva on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes; assisted in translating the New Testament into French (1726), and became librarian at Geneva (1727). He was a great scholar, much esteemed by Newton, Voltaire, and Rousseau.
Abba (Aram, 'father'), a devotional expression for the Divine Father, and apparently the chief appellation of God used by Jesus in prayer, occurs four times in the New Testament (Mark xiv. 36; Matt. xxvi. 39; Rom. viii. 15; Gal. iv. 6), accompanied by its Greek equivalent. It is supposed to have been used as a sacred proper name; servants were forbidden to use it to their masters.
Abbadle, Antoine Thomson D1 (1810-97), French savant and explorer, of French-Irish parent
age, was born at Dublin. He was educated in France, whither his parents removed in 1818. He was sent by the Acadimie des Sciences on a mission to Brazil (1835); occupied with the exploration of Abyssinia (1837-48); a member of the Acadimie des Sciences (1867), and of the Bureau des Longitudes (1878); received the Arago medal, along with Lord Kelvin (1896). He bequeathed his estate of Abbadie to the Acadimie des Sciences, on condition of its publishing a catalogue of 500,000 stars in 50 years.
Abbadle, Arnaud Michel D' (1815-93), accompanied his brother Antoine to Abyssinia, and wrote Douze Ans dans la Haute-Ethiopie (1868).
Abbmrtle,JACQUES( 1654-1727). Protestant theologian, a native of Nay, in Beam, France. He was pastor of a French Protestant church in Berlin (1676), and in 1688 pastor of the French church of the Savoy in London. William in. nominated him dean of Killaloe, Ireland. His bestknown work is Traiti de It Virile de la Religion Chritienne (1684), an apologetic work inspired by the Cartesian philosophy. Other noteworthy books are L'Art de se connaitre soimime (1692); Defense de la Nation Britannique (1692); La Grande Conspiration d'Angleterre (1696).
Abbas (c. 566-652), uncle of .Mohammed, was taken prisoner at the battle of Bedr, and afterward became the leading supporter of the faith. He was the founder of the dynasty of the Abbassides, who were califs of Bagdad from 750 until the Mongol conquest in 1258. See Calif; Califate.
Abbas I., 'THE Great' (15571628), Persian monarch, ascended the throne in 1586. He defeated the Uzbegs at Herat (1579), and the Turks in many battles (1601-9), and, with British assistance, drove the Portuguese from Ormuz (1622). His dominion extended from the Tigris to the Indus. He established the capital at Ispahan, and was the author of many important reforms.
Abbas EITendl. See Ba
Abbas Hllml (1874), Khedive of Egypt, son of Mohammed Tewfik, was educated in Vienna, and is an accomplished linguist, speaking French, German, English, and Arabic. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his father in 1892. At first antagonistic to British influence, he has in recent years given his support to the improvements in
itua.nl by the British. He owns extensive farm lands near Cairo. Alexandria, and Koubbeh, some of which were reclaimed by drainage; and he is interested in horse and camel breeding.
Ahhas Mlria (1783-1833), Prince of Persia, son of Shah Feth-Ali, was commander in the Russian campaigns of 1811-13 and 1826-8, in which Persia lost her Caucasian territories. He was recognized as Shah by the treaty of 1828.
Abbas P»sh»(1813-54).grandson of Mehemet AH, succeeded his uncle, Ibrahim Pasha, as viceroy of Egypt (1848). He aided the Sultan of Turkey in the Crimean War. His rule was wasteful and reactionary.
Abbassldes. See Abbas.
Abbate, Niccolo Dell' (151271), Italian painter, was born in Modena. He studied under Correggio, and assisted Primaticcio in decorating the palace of Fontainebleau. His best works are the altar piece of San Pietro (Modena) , and Execution of the A postlts Peter and Paul (Dresden).
Abbates Hllltes, AbbatoComites, or Abbacomites, lay abbots from the ninth to the eleventh century, who deputed deans or priors to the spiritual oversight of their abbeys.
Abbaila, health resort in Istria, Austria, at the head of the Gulf of Fiume, 9 m. west of Fiume, with which it is connected by boat and rail. It is well sheltered at the foot of Monte Maggiore; mean summer temperature, 77°; winter, 50° F. It is known as the Nice of the Adriatic. Pop. about 2.0OO.
Ahbr. at first meaning abbot, was early applied in France to any ecclesiastic, a sense which the word still holds. See Abbot.
Abbe, Cleveland (1838), American astronomer and meteorologist, was born in New York City, and was educated first at the College of the City of New York. He studied astronomy at the University of Michigan, at Cambridge, Mass., and at Pulkova, Russia. In 1868 he was appointed director of the Cincinnati Observatory, where he organized for the Chamber of Commerce a system of daily telegraphic meteorological reports and weather predictions for the benefit of the whole city. In 1871 he became professor of meteorology at the Signal Office, and subsequently at the Weather Bureau at Washington. His works on meteorology are of high authority. His best-known works include Meteorological A pparatus and Methods (1887); The Mechanics
of the Earth's Atmosphere (vol. I. 1877, II. 1891, III. 1909); The A Uilu.de of the A urora (1896); Physical Basis of Long-Range Forecasting (1902). He edited the monthly Weather Review (1892-1909,) and now edits the quarterly Bulletin of the Research Observatory at Mount Weather.
Abbe, Robert (1851), American surgeon, brother of Cleveland Abbe (q. v.), was born in New York City. He was graduated at the College of the City of New York (1870), and at the College of Physicians and Surgeons (1874). He was attending surgeon at the New York Hospital (1877-84), and at the New York Babies' Hospital (1892-7); and has been surgeon to St. Luke's Hospital since 1884, and to the New York Cancer Hospital since 1893. He was for two years professor of didactic surgery in the Women's Medical College, professor of surgery in the New York Post-Graduate Medical School (1889-97); and since 1898 has lectured on surgery at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. He is eminent both as a surgeon and for his researches in radium.
Abbess, female superior of a nunnery, chosen by the secret votes of the nuns. She must be over forty years old, and have kept the vows of the order for at least eight years. She is installed by episcopal benediction, and exercises the temporal and spiritual duties of an abbot, except confession and preaching.
Abbeville (Abbotts Villa), town, dept. Somme, France, on an island and both banks of the Somme River, 15 m. from its mouth in the English Channel. Exports grain, fodder, flour, cloth, and rope; imports tar, coal, salt, wool, wine, and cattle. There are a communal library (50,000 volumes), a museum, and colleges for boys and girls. It is noted for its Church of St. Wolfram.
Abbeville was founded in the ninth century, was fortified by Charlemagne and Hugh Capet, and later became the residence and capital of the courts of Ponthieu. It was occupied by the English in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and was the scene of English-French treaties in 1259 and 1527. It was taken by Germany in 1870. Pop. 22,000.
AbbeTllle, town, South Carolina, county seat of Abbeville county, on the Southern and other RRs., 107 m. west by north of Columbia. Cotton and other agricultural products are raised in the neighborhood, and
in the town are cotton gins, manufactories of cottonseed oil and fertilizers, and flour mills. Pop. (1910) 4.459.
Abbey, the abode of a community of monks or nuns. As a Christian institution it originated among the early Christian hermits of the Egyptian desert as a cluster of separate huts built round that of an anchorite of distinguished piety; anticipated as a form of community by the Buddhists, Essenes, and Therapeutae; it is a natural corollary of the ascetic principle. As the monastic system became organized, there arose a form of architecture suited to its needs. The principle adopted by the Benedictines, that an abbey should be entirely self-contained, led to great complexity in the many thousand buildings erected by that order throughout Western Europe. These included the church, the centre of the whole monastic life; the chapter-house; abbot's house; common room of the monks; the refectory; dormitories; cloisters; bmldings devoted to the reception of guests; the almonry; infirmary and physician's residence; library and writing-room; house and schools for novices and children, etc. (See diagram under Monastery.) The whole abbey was surrounded by a wall. Among British abbeys are Westminster, Canterbury, York, Tewkesbury (Benedictine), Durham, Fountains (Cistercian), Bolton, Bristol, Holyrood (Augustinian). The first English abbey was founded at Bangor in 560. Henry vm. suppressed many of the smaller foundations in 1525 and following years, and abolished all institutions of this kind in 1539-40. See Priory; Monastery; Monasticism. Consult Wishart's Short History of Monks and Monasticism (1900); Cram's Ruined Abbeys of Great Britain (1905); Dixon's Abbeys of Great Britain (1908); Gasquet's Greater Abbeys of England (1908); Hibbert's Dissolution of the Monasteries (1910).
Abbey, Edwin Austin (18521911), American illustrator and figure paintsr, was born in Philadelphia. After studying at the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts he went to New York (1871), and was for several years an illustrator for Harper and Brothers. In 1878 the firm commissioned him to go to England in search of local color for illustrations to Herrick's poems; and he subsequently made his home in that country. He transferred his attention from pen and ink to the brush, and his first academy picture was A May Day