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75-Botanical Correspondence.-W. T. W., and others, wishing to unite in the botanical correspondence (39) should write to the proposer.
76-The Language of Flowers. K.-The gentleman who presented Kate with the bunch of blue violets designed the gift as a compliment to her modesty. By tying them with blue ribbon, he probably intended to strengthen the sentiment of the bouquet,-or, even more likely, to express his own constancy. 77-Removing Glass Stoppers.-W. W. finds the following plan the most efficacious:-Put a piece of small string around the neck of the bottle, one coil round, and fix one end of the string to a nail, then holding the other end in your hand, rapidly move the bottle from end to end. The heat caused by friction will expand the neck of the bottle, and loosen the stopper.
78-Grammatical. F. T. M.-Is it grammatical to say "no one saw it but me?" None of the dictionaries give "but" a prepositional force; but as it means in this case exactly the same as "except," should it not be followed by the objective case?-Yes; the phrase is correct, the "but" has a prepositional force, and takes the objective case. Except, however, is a preferable term.
79-Plural and Singular Verbs. We are requested to determine which is the more correct expression - "In this work are contained various specimens:" or-" In this work is contained," &c.-The first is correct, the latter incorrect. The sentence in its natural order reads thus:Various specimens are contained in this work. "Are" is the verb substantive, agreeing with its subject-" various specimens," and connecting it with the predicate-"contained in this work."
80-Quotation. L. M.-"To teach the young idea how to shoot." This passage, so often quoted, occurs in Thomson's Seasons, Spring, 1. 1150. It is as follows:"Delightful task! to rear the tender thought, To teach the young idea how to shoot, To pour the fresh instruction o'er the mind, To breathe th' enlivening spirit, and to fix The generous purpose in the glowing breast."
81-Street Etiquette. R. N. H.-It is customary to remove the hat upon meeting a person to whom you would show the best courtesy. But it is not a necessary observance; the habit of merely bowing being pursued by many persons of good taste. The several modes of salutation may be said to possess different qualities, and should be adopted with due regard thereto. A bow is a respectful and somewhat unfamiliar recognition; raising the hat indicates a higher degree of respectful feeling; the presentation of the hand is an indication of friendship, &c. &c. 82-Courtship.-Dandelion, a young lady, who writes like a school girl, confesses herself "very much attached" to a gentleman sir and twenty years older than herself. The "old gentleman," for such we may comparatively term him, is said to be "very fascinating." Dandelion seriously asks the Editor whether a happy union is probable, where there is such a dissimilarity of ages? The Editor, regarding this query as an exhibition of the folly of a wayward girl, refers her to her parents, and reminds her of the commendment "Honour thy father and thy mother," &c.
83-History. T. asks-"What relation was Henry VI. to Edward IV. and what relationship existed between each of these and their ancestor, Edward III. ?"-Edward IV. was cousin to Henry VI., five times removed. ward IV. was descended from the third son of Edward III.; Henry VI. from the fourth son of that monarch. The third son of Edward III. was Lionel, Duke of Clarence; and Edward IV. was a descendant of his daughter. The fourth son of Edward III. was the celebrated John of Gaunt; and Henry VI. was his great-grandson.
84-Past participles. S. C. asks if past participles are always formed by adding d or ed to the verb-No. Verbs of what Latham terms the strong conjugation, form their past participles with n or en, and a change of vowel; thus the verb speak becomes spoken, took becomes taken. Verbs of the weak conjugation have three participial forms:1st, d or ed; 2nd, d or t, with a shortening of the vowel, as in flee, fled, keep, kept; 3rd, d or t, and a change of vowel, as in catch, caught-tell, told. S. C. refers to the double consonants, but these have no force in the formation of participles; they occur either for the sake of euphony, or for preserving the precise signification of the verb.
85-Annuities. T. E. N.-Nearly all the Life Assurance Companies grant annuities. Of the National Temperance Provident Society (39, Moorgate Street, London), and of the National Loan Fund Life Assurance Society (26, Cornhill), we have a good opinion. Applications for prospectuses should be made to the the above addresses. "Deferred Annuities" are annuities payable by the So
ciety, from a certain age, in prospect, till death, in consideration of regular payments by an individual till that certain age. Thus a person, by payment of a shilling a week from the age of twenty, secures to himself at the age of sixty a certain sum, quarterly or yearly, for the rest of his life.
86-Education. A. A. M.-Our advice is requested as to the best method to be employed to induce a spirit of application to study in an intelligent boy of nine years old, who is quick and clever, but wants application.-Lure him on gradually by a mode of teaching that shall interest him, and be carefully adapted to his age and degree of progress. At nine years old we cannot expect much power of abstraction. High animal spirits, restlessness, and volatility, are not the worst signs of this age. Much tact is requisite. The anxious mother also inquires-" Will that natural want of application follow him through life?"-We reply, that characters undergo great changes after nine years old. Some of the least studious boys have made the most studious men. Ascertain what is the particular cause of the deficiency, and then you will better know how to deal with it most wisely.
87-Unfermented Bread. J. C. having written to us respecting a batch of unfermented bread, made according to the instructions, p. 174, vol. ii., which he had prepared and found unsatisfactory, we caused a sample of our own [the author's] making to be sent to him. He says in reply. Your bread is excellent, and certainly very much su perior to the ordinary kind;" and adds-"there must have been something wrong in the manipulations of Mrs. C." We expect so, and hope that Mrs. C. will not be offended since her husband first raised the suspicion. We are scrupulously careful respecting receipts published in our book. They are not (as are such matters in cheap periodicals generally,) merely copies from old prints, but the result of practical examination and experience. Those who use our pages rightly, will find them teeming with matters of real utility.
88-Double Consonants. S. H. wishes to be informed whether it is correct or not to double the last consonant in such words as limitted, biassed, preferred, &c. &c. when a third syllable is added. The word limited does not double the consonant of the second syllable; and, as a general rule, the consonant is not doubled when the accent is on the first of two syllables of a verb. The word biassed doubles the s for the purpose of changing the sound into because the sharp &, and the flat d, are incompatible sounds, and the word is really either biast, or biazd; the doubles denotes the latter. This word is an example of an important class of double consonants, rendered so for the sake of euphony. The word preferred is an example of a different kind: here the consonant r is doubled in accordance with the rule that preserves in this way the characteristic significations of the verb. Thus, with a single r the word would be prefere-d; as incurred with one would be incure-d; and stepped with one p would he stepe-d; and fatted with one t would be fate-d-all totally different meanings.
89-Astronomy. R. A. S.-The asteroids which have been discovered within the orbit of Jupiter, and beyond that of Mars, are as follows:-Vesta, Juno, Ceres, Pallas, Flora, Iris, Hebe, Astræa, and Diana. The five last have been discovered since 1847. The new planet, Neptune, beyond the circuit of Uranus, was first seen on the 4th and 12th of August, by Professor Challis, of Cambridge; and afterwards by Dr. Galle, of the Royal Observatory at Berlin, on the 23rd of September. The honour of the discovery appears equally to belong to Mr. Adams and M. Leverrier, by whose wonderful calculations a place was assigned to the planet before it was seen. It appears not to preserve the analogy of distance observed among the nearer planets. Its period of revolution is 164 years; and its substance is considerably lighter than cork. It is probable that it is endowed with two or more satellites; and that it possesses a ring like that of Saturn. The number of comets attached to the Solar System must be several thousands. Nothing is known of their composition. The matter of the nucleus is powerfully excited and dilated into a vapourous state by the action of the sun's rays, escaping in streams and jets at those points of its surface which afford the least resistance, and, in all probability, throwing that nucleus into irregular motions by its reaction. This process takes place in that portion of the nucleus which is turned towards the sun, the vapour chiefly escaping in that direction, and being drifted back from the face of the nucleus by some force directed from the sun, thus forming the tail. Hence it is probable that a comet may lose some of its peculiar vapour at every approach to the sun. The tail of a comet, however, says Sir John Herschel "may consist, for aught we know, of a very few pounds of matter." Yet this hand
ful of matter may be extended over millions of miles of space! Meteors, or shooting stars, are probably small planets belonging to the Solar System. A brilliant display of them generally occurs on the 12th, 13th, and 14th of November; and, not unfrequently, a similar sight has been enjoyed on the 10th of August, owing to their crossing the track of the earth about that date. Every lover of the sublime and wonderful should read Sir John Herschel's Outlines of Astronomy, and Humboldt's Cosmos.
90-Curious Electrical Properties of Gutta Percha.Whilst experimenting with a piece of gutta percha silk (so called from its thinness and silky appearance), having accidentally passed my hand briskly along the surface, I found it to be strongly charged with electricity, so much so, that, by repeating it, I could fill a small Leyden jar, give a shock, and perform many experiments, as if I had the ordinary machine. The following experiments will be found interesting. Procure from a gutta percha dealer one foot of silk, sold at 5d. per foot. 1st. Cut a strip about three inches in width the whole length; lay it on a table; then pass your hand or a dry silk handkerchief briskly along the surface several times: now, if you take it up by one end, its excited state will be apparent by its attracting any thing that is near. 2nd. Double the strip, hold it up at the doubled end; strip through your fingers several times; immediately the two ends will fly apart, showing repulsion. 3rd. If these experiments are performed in a dark room, a lambent flame will be seen to follow the hand, and as you raise the silk from the table, a line of light flame will be observed at the separation. 4th. The most convenient method for the experimentalist, is to fix the silk on a frame, leaving a margin of three inches on each side, so as to insulate the silk as you raise it from the table. For fixing the silk on the frame, proceed thus:-Buy one yard of half-inch flat gutta percha band (cost 2d.); cut two strips the width of silk, tack them on each end of the frame, exactly in the centre; then soften with a warm iron the surface of one end piece, lay the end of silk evenly down, pressing it gently until cold. Proceed with the other in the same manner, drawing it gently until smooth and even. The larger the surface of silk, the more powerfully it will be excited. 5th. Lay the frame, with silk side downwards, on the table, excite as before, raise it up on one end, and apply your knuckle, when you will receive several electric sparks. To charge a Leyden jar:-Excite, and apply the ball of the jar instead of your knuckle; repeat six or eight times, when you will have accumulated enough for a shock. In conclusion; in lieu of glass baked woods, ivory, &c., for electrical purposes, gutta percha possesses important advantages, viz., perfect insulating power without the fear of breakage, which is a great desideratum in electrical, chemical, and other purposes. Therefore it will be found very useful for Leyden jar covers, insulating stools, discharging rod-handles, insulating telegraph wire-supports along railways (small stone-ware cylinders are now used, which allow the rain to deposit in the cavity that the wire passes through); gutta percha would be superior, as the two ends could be sealed up, thus preventing the wire from being destroyed at these points.-EDWARD WRIGHT.
91-Do you know yourself when you see yourself?It is a remarkable fact that although a person may have become familiar with his front face, his profile is so strange to his eye, that he does not immediately recognise it. Passing between two tall pier glasses, some time back, we noticed in A the reflection of the glass B, containing a profile view of a face which we thought we had somewhere seen, but the owner of which we could not remember how to name. Upon a closer examination, chiefly owing to lit tle peculiarities in the arrangement of the hair, we found it was the side view of ourself. The glasses can be easily arranged in the position indicated in the diagram, so that a side face is presented obliquely to the glass B, and a front face obliquely to the glass A.
92-Bees. J. R. C., in reply to a query (36 of Questions Requiring Answers, vol. ii.), says-"I have been an apiarian for the last fifteen years. I have a considerable variety of hives, from the simple rustic straw hive, to Nutt's
pavilion with collateral boxes. The locality in which I reside not being a very good one for bees, I have had frequently to feed them, but never experienced the difficulty of which K. C. B. complains, neither, I believe, would he, had he gone rightly to work. Let K. C. B. get shallow boxes for his hives to stand in, so that he can introduce, at the back of the hive, a shallow dish with the syrup; and let him bear in mind never to feed except in the evening, and always to remove the dish early in the morning. And be careful that none of the syrup be spilt about the hive, as that will attract the bees from neighbouring hives much more than when it is in the comb. At the same time, the entrance to the hive ought to he contracted to about an inch in length to three-eighths of an inch in depth. By attending to this practice, I have never had any fighting worth speaking of. As a general rule for feeding beesat the end of harvest, if needed, feed plentifully; during winter never feed: in spring feed sparingly."-J. R. C., Wemyss, Fifeshire.
93-Coal. T. L. S., having had some discussion with a clergyman upon Grandfather Whitehead's Lecture upon Coal, inquires how it is that coal varies in quality in different strata?-The fact that each layer of coal differs in the proportion of bituminous matter which it contains, does not at all affect the truth of the statement that the coal strata are the remains of the primeval vegetable growths. Where the strata have been exposed to great heat, the coal contains less bitumen: where the carbonaceous matter has been deposited slowly in an estuary, it will be coarser, owing to the sand, &c., mixed with the vegetable matters. In this manner every variety of quality in coal may be accounted for. The great age of the geologic strata must be admitted; and the mere denial of any one person cannot be held sufficient to upset the mass of information and arguments brought forward by a host of scientific inquirers of high character. The circulation of the blood-the revolution of the earth round the sun-that the brain is the organ of the mind-are facts which are now seen to be in no sense opposed to Scripture, though formerly denounced as impious and unscriptural. A similar outcry was raised against anatomy, the use of the microscope, and electricity; and a few years ago a few ill-informed and injudicious persons denounced Geology in like manner. The work of GOD cannot be opposed to the Word of the Creator.
94-The Leech Barometer.-Having seen in The Family Friend an article (par. 60, app. vol. ii.) recommending a leech as "a natural barometer," I was induced to make the experiment, and for this purpose procured two or three horse-leeches, which I kept in a bottle, and attentively watched their motions for some time, but was somewhat puzzled by finding that their motions did not correspond. Since observing this, I came upon the following extract from "The Book of Shells," published under the direction of the Committee of General Literature and Education, 1837.-"The property by which a leech anticipates thunder, has induced some persons to employ it as a species of barometer; for this purpose a leech is enclosed in a glass vessel half-filled with water, and the following is supposed to be the result:-When the weather is about to be serene and pleasant the leech will remain at the bottom of the vessel without the least movement. Secondly-If it is about to rain, the animal will rise to the surface, and there remain until the approach of fine weather. Thirdly -Before boisterous weather, it will appear in a state of great agitation. Fourthly-On the approach of thunder, it will remain out of water for several days, appearing agitated, restless, and so on. This natural barometer appears to answer tolerably well if there is sufficient belief in its virtues on the part of the possessor, and if one leech only is employed; but when several of these creatures are enclosed in the same vessel, they do not appear to obey the same laws, and consequently their movements do not correspond with sufficient accuracy to render their indications of the weather of much use." I thought the failure might possibly arise from my employing horse-leeches instead of medicinal leeches. If any of your numerous correspondents can explain this, it will much oblige D. O. H.-We stated in our notice of the barometrical properties of the leech, that we had not much acquaintance with the subject; and the remarks quoted were founded upon the authority of W. H. Attree, Esq. The above letter having again attracted our attention to the matter, we again referred to the leech, and were not a little discomfited to find that our flexile friend had crept off through a hole in the covering of the bottle-a pretty decided "indication" thathe thought he could better his condition. The result of this excursion in search of a new home is probably disastrous. The daring traveller very likely lies dead upon the arid desert-a warning to the discontented!]
95-Chess. P.-The opposing kings may not venture into squares next to each other. Nor can one king give check to another. 96-Betting. K. T.-We disapprove of betting. It is an unlawful speculation, in which gain is sought to be obtained without a fair consideration or equivalent. Ladies, especially, should avoid it.
97-Bad Habits of Children. Q.-A bitter substance rubbed upon the thumb of a child will correct its habit of sucking the part. A strong decoction of chamomile flowers may be employed for the purpose.
98-Heraldry. J. B. N.-Burke's Heraldry contains the names of thirteen Nicholsons, bearing arms. Communicate your descent to any herald writer, and at the charge of a few shillings he will inform you of your proper arms. 99-Moles. W. A. B. It is very doubtful whether moles are not more useful than the reverse. They keep the earthworms in check. The best mode of destroying moles is by the common trap, made with noose, frame, and bent stick.
"Full many a flower is born to blush unseen, And waste its sweetness on the desert air."
105-Hair Dye.-J. B., wishing to dye his hair brown, prepared the hair-dye, p. 296, vol. ii.; but, determining first to try the experiment upon a detached lock, found that the dye changed the colour of the hair to a deep black. -J. B. allowed the dye to remain on the hair too longthe degree of colour is influenced by the duration of the application of the dye. 106-Armorial Bearings. M. C.-Persons having their arms impaled upon carriages are liable to a tax of 488. per annum. Persons not keeping carriages, but liable to the window duty, and using armorial hearings on their seals, 248. per annum. Persons not included in the foregoing, 128. per annum. The tax, however, is seldom enforced, except against those who keep carriages. 107-Fly Papers. J.-The papers used for catching flies are probably made from a mixture of treacle and turpentine. Preparations of this kind, however, undoubtedly attract into the room more flies than they catch or kill. The following receipt is said to be effective-but we have not tried it:-"Take half a tea-spoonful of black pepper in powder, one tea-spoonful of brown sugar, and one table-spoonful of cream; mix them well together, and place them on a plate in the room where the flies are troublesome, and they will soon disappear." 108-Electrical Amalgam. W. W. M.-Melt equal parts of tin and zinc together in an iron spoon, or ladle, and stir the melted metals quickly with an iron rod, or wire. Having heated a quantity of mercury, equal in quantity to the tin and zinc together, stir it in. Then pour the whole into a wooden box, and shake violently till the amalgam is cold. To preserve this amalgam from oxidation by the air, it must be kept in a bottle closely stopped. When required to be applied to the electrical machine, it is used in the following manner:-A portion of the amalgam should be crushed on clean paper, and then applied to the cushion of the machine, which should have been greased with fresh tallow.
109-Morning, Noon, &c.-I am a young man in a
112-Clouds. F. T. S.-The varied forms of the clouds depend upon the modes of their formation-that is, whether they are condensed into visible forms in a quiet or a disturbed atmosphere. It is likely also that the electrical condition of the vapour itself may have an influence upon the shape it may assume. The cloud is a collection of vapours suspended in the atmosphere, and consists chiefly of water converted into the gaseous form by heat. The round massive cloud which looks like a distant mountain, is called cumulus. The name is a Latin word, signifying a heap, (and is the derivative of accumulation.) The flat long cloud is called stratus, a layer, (hence the word stratification, &c.) The feathery cloud, like a colt's tail, is called cirrhus, a beard. When the stratus intersects the cumulus, the combined form is called nimbus (a shower), from its producing rain. An article on this subject will be contained in our future pages.
113-Etiquette. Miss L. begs to submit a question which has arisen between herself and a friend, as to which is etiquette-For the lady of the house herself to commence singing or playing at a party, or to ask some of her it is the part of the hostess to entertain her guests, and friends to do so first. On the one side it was argued, that that she ought to set them at ease, by taking the responsibility of a first performance herself; whereas, the other side stated, that the hostess should keep herself in the background, and that it is supposed she will best entertain her guests by leading them to display their talents, especially when attention is likely to be liveliest.-In the case stated by Miss L. no fixed rule can be given. If the guests are young and timid, the lady of the house may encourage them by first sitting down to her harp or piano; the reverse is, however, most customary and proper. No lady certainly will seek to outshine her friends, in either case.
114-Language of Flowers. Being at a gipsy party the other day, and having a beautiful double gillyflower in my coat, it was much admired by a lady; I took it out and presented it to her, without thinking at the moment of the sentiment of flowers. On returning home in an omnibus we stayed at a village on the way, when the lady wished to get out to speak to a friend, and having to pass me in doing so, she extended her hand towards me; I took it to assist her, when unperceived by any one present, she placed the flower in my hand which I gave her in the morning. I am quite at a loss to understand her meaning in returning the flower. If you will favour me with your opinion on the subject, through the medium of your valuable magazine, you will greatly oblige C. B.-The gillyflower is the emblem of "lasting beauty; and the lady being aware of this
may have thought it her duty to decline the assumed flattery. Ladies, however, are very capricious in such matters, and in this case there may have been a motive which our wits fail to discover.
115-Teaching the Blind to read.-In Appendix, vol. ii. Questions Answered, No. 16, there was some information given as to teaching the blind to read. Will the Editor be kind enough to mention a new mode of printing invented by Mr. Moon, Brighton, who is himself blind, and the teacher of a Blind School. It is a very great improvement upon former plans-first, because the characters are so extremely simple as to be easily felt; second, because not being in shorthand, it is quickly learnt, and easily retained; and third, because it is stereotyped by a process which makes the letters very sharp to the touch. Mr. Moon has also invented a very simple mode of writing, and of printing music for the blind. Mr. Moon being blind, a lady at Clapham Common, who lately visited his school at Brighton, and was exceedingly struck with the perfect success of his plan then in use, has complied with his request to write this communication to the Editor. Any communication might be addressed to Mr. Moon, Blind School, Brighton.-[The Editor has received specimens of Mr. Moon's Works.]
116-Pronunciation. N. N.-There is some difference of opinion as to the pronunciation of Deuteronomy. If we are to be guided by derivation, the emphasis would be on the penultima, or last syllable but one; and this is the pronunciation adopted by many scholars. On the other hand, those who regard certain habits of accent in the Anglo-Saxon tongue as more worthy of regard than the accents of the derivatives, argue that to accent the penultima is pedantic, and gives a harsh sound to the ear. With these is Walker, who places the accent upon the antepenultima, or last syllable but two.-With reference to the word literati, the accent falls upon the a, which is the long sound as in fate. The pronunciation of homoeopathy again involves a question. Some persons accent the first syllable only; a few, arguing that all diphthongs are long, accent the ; the greatest number, from the custom ruling in a majority of Anglo-Saxon words, accent the antepenultima, making the o short, as in "of;" many, again, guided by the accent on the first syllable of the second word of the two from which the English term is derived, accent the a, and give it the long sound. We are inclined in favour of the first and last, and have a slight preference for the latter.
117-Gnats. W. A. B.-The common gnat (culer pipieus) is a near relation to the musquito, but is not usually so troublesome to the human species. They both belong to the section Nemocera of the Dipterous insects, whose mouths are furnished with bristly stings, included in flexile sheaths. They pierce the skin by means of the proboscis, in order to feed upon the blood, and, at the same time, inject a poisonous fluid, producing considerable inflammation and swelling, of varying intensity in different persons. Their activity usually commences towards evening, or after sunset. The Laplanders appear to be the greatest sufferers from their attacks; but all latitudes are, more or less, troubled with the species. The Laplanders use tar-cream to prevent the insects biting them, but that could scarcely be used in this country. The common Goulard water, scented with eau de Cologne, is the best application we know, and is useful in allaying the irritation, as preventing the attacks. We have observed that gnats seldom or never frequent rooms or houses where chloride of lime has been exposed. We should be glad if those who are much troubled by gnats would try the use of this remedy, and report upon its efficacy. If the diffusion of a small quantity of chlorine in the air should be fatal to the culex species, the inhabitants of the tropics would consider us indeed a Family Friend in making, with the assistance of our correspondents, the discovery of any method of destroying the musquitoes.
118-Door Mats. E. B.-One of the most useful mats for cottage and other doors is that termed the "chain mat," which is commonly made of rope, or of cocoa-nut fibre. These mats are found very durable, and it is sufficiently obvious from their structure that they do not become clogged with dirt, which falls into the interstices, and may easily be swept away when the mat is lifted up. We call the attention of cottagers to the fact that hay-bands, or twisted or plaited straw, may easily be converted into mats of this description.
119-Mercury.-G. S. inquires what are the bad effects of mercury imbibed into the human frame. We conclude that our correspondent does not allude to the liquid metal (which in its uncombined state cannot pass into the blood), but uses the term in its popular sense. The stone mercury, or bichloride of quicksilver, is a violent irritant poison, which chemically changes the vital fluids, rendering them quite unfit to support life. Calomel, the protochloride of quicksilver, is a less violent agent, but if carelessly administered produces peculiar effects, such as ulcerated sore-throat, excessive salivation, loosening of the teeth, and scaly eruptions on the skin. It also appears sometimes, when administered in continued doses, to produce sudden death.
120-Impositions.-Seeing your observations on the deceptive advertisements now circulating in newspapers, and also a wish expressed that your readers would assist you in exposing them-I wrote to "Professor Luton, 2, Hastings Street, Burton Crescent, London," who professes to enable any lady or gentleman, "irrespective of age or appearance, to gain the affections of as many of the opposite sex as their hearts may desire." I enclosed thirteen postage stamps, and received as answer a small green covered book containing about twelve pages, where, after a great deal of winding, he informs you that he can accommodate you with a wife, either by writing and inserting advertisements; or secondly, from the great number of young persons he is acquainted with-which renders the first idea only to be resorted to as a forlorn hope. But at last comes the requirement of a "consideration," which I suppose he leaves to the generosity of the discerning public!-DETECTOR.-[This furnishes a reply to S. R.'s inquiry.]
121-Another Cheat.-To save others from a snare into which I have myself foolishly fallen, in spite of the repeated cautions constantly received through your and other valuable publications, I beg to state the following:Seeing an advertisement in one of our local papers (Leeds Intelligencer, I believe), professing honourably to secure an income of £10 per week, on receipt of a post office order for 10s., being really needy, and anxious to turn my time and talents to account, I wrote a very polite note, with most satisfactory references, saying, if I could only be taught to earn half that sum, I would gladly send double the amount named, stating, also, that a person in a small provincial town was very differently situated to a stranger in the great ocean of the metropolis; to this note I received a very indignant reply; but there were some things seemingly so fair, that I was foolish enough to send the post office order, in return for which, I have this morning received three receipts-one for cleaning kid gloves, one for rendering boots and shoes waterproof, and a third for inlaying in mother-o'-pearl. These, and better receipts for the same purposes, almost any receipt-book contains; and much more valuable ones are constantly to be met with in your pages. I think you will confer a benefit by naming this transaction in your Family Friend, as it may justly be entitled.-F. E. F., Ripon, Yorkshire.-We have received numerous letters complaining of similar impositions. In one case an attempt was made to swindle our correspondent out of 501., upon pretence that a secret would be revealed by which a larger fortune than could ever be spent might be made in less time than would be consumed by the tossing up of a sixpence-or some such preposterous pretension. We caution our Family Friends everywhere against fraudulent parties who, under various plausible pretences, advertise "secrets," and "discoveries," "valuable receipts," &c. &c., for sale. We shall probably return to the matter, and give a list of the impostors, though this will be an insufficient security, seeing that they change their names frequently, with the very purpose of duping the same victims a second time.
5-Economical Living. J. B.-If J. B. will refer to the "Penny Vegetarian Cookery," published by W. Horsell, Aldine Chambers, 13, Paternoster Row, he will find the information he asks for on this subject. After nearly twelve months' experience, I can vouch for the expenses being within the prescribed sum. In addition to practising the Vegetarian dietary, I have, for nearly two years, discontinued taking tea, coffee, &c., and have found a substitute in Nature's beverage, cold water, which I take, sweetened with loaf sugar, twice a day; namely, to breakfast, and at the usual hour of tea; so great is my liking for it, that, at this time, I take it in preference to any of the usual beverages prepared for those meals, and without experiencing the ill effects from it I formerly did after partaking of them.-A. M. BOYNE,
124-Yes or No, to a negative question? P. What answer would you give to this question, which, you will perceive, is interrogative-"He is not coming, then?"-If the person is not coming, the answer should be No.If he is coming, it should be-Yes.
125-Emigration.-C. GWILLIM, the Secretary to the British Ladies' Female Emigrant Society, thanks M. H. L. B. for acceptable contributions. Several ladies have adopted" emigrant baskets," for the preservation of scraps of useful materials. We hope that many more will adopt the benevolent resolution. See par. 43. A. R. S.-The tint of the fuschia differs widely in different specimens. The deep lake colour is imitated in wax with carmine or vermilion, combined with a little blue. The baskets are made by first forming the skeleton of iron or copper wire, and dipping it in melted wax.
126-War Flowers and Baskets.
127-Electro-plating of Insects.-A subscriber writes in allusion to No. 54 Appendix, p. 5, as follows:-The object will be more easily gained by dipping the insect in an alcoholic solution of bi-sulphuret of carbon, and then in a solution of nitrate of silver. A very thin coat of silver will be deposited, which will conduct better than plumbago, and the most delicately-formed insect can be submitted to the process.
128-Myrtle Slips. E. N. T., after alluding to our directions to strike myrtle slips, writes as follows:-"A simple and almost unfailing plan is to place a slip in a phial bottle full of water; place in the sun, where the least possible disturbance from wind, opening of the window, &c., will be experienced. Fill up the bottle as the water wastes, but never change it. In a month or two roots will start out; let them get strong, and then plant the slips. 129-Titles.-Rosa would be glad to be informed, if in speaking of a near relative, who is a colonel, doctor, or any similar title, it would be correct to call him by that title, or to make use of his christian name? Would it appear ostentatious to do the former, or a want of respect to do the latter?-[We think there is a propriety in employing the title, it implies the respect which an exalted position is understood to deserve.]
130-To Heat a Bath. M. A. H.-If it is not convenient to carry heated water from the fire to the bath, a pipe may be fitted to the boiler or kettle on the kitchen fire, and the steam from those sources condensed into the bathwater. The steam pipe should be covered with non-conducting material (such as woollen cloth), sufficiently thick to prevent the condensation of the steam in the pipe after the first few minutes. The water in the boiler or kettle must, of course, be raised to boiling temperature.
131-The Leech Barometer.-In answer to D. O. H., I have had a "Leech Barometer" now about six monthsimmediately after I first saw an account of one in the Family Friend; it is a medicinal leech, one I had occasion to use during an illness, and a more faithful or correct weather indicator never was possessed by anybody. I keep him in a bottle about half full of water, with a piece of calico tied over the neck, pricked with a pin to admit air. He has not decamped, but seems very happy.-J. L. Greenwich. 132-Riding.-A. G. inquires "if a lady takes an airing on horseback, accompanied by a gentleman, which is considered the proper side for the gentleman to ride--on her right or left?-Authorities differ, but the general impression, and to us the most reasonable opinion, is that the gentleman should ride on the lady's left, because-1st. His right hand is at liberty to seize her rein in case her horse was restive, (or to give the lady herself assistance.) 2nd. Because the lady can most conveniently talk with the gentleman on her left.
133-Hair Dye-Good News for the Grey Heads!-Allow me to return my sincere thanks to your correspondent for his recipe of an invaluable, but extremely economical hair dye, published at p. 117. I followed out the directions, with the exception of applying the damp paper on the head, and found it gave the exact shade I wanted, being a dark brown. I am fully persuaded that had I followed out the recipe to the letter it would have turned the hair black. I have been grey since I was twenty-one years old, i am now thirty-one, and the change is highly satisfactory to myself and my friends.-C., Camberwell. 134-National Flora.-The want of a society calculated to promote botanical research, and to assist students
in their studies,-the desire to extend and perfect a knowledge of our own flora, and the need of facilities for the exchange and procurance of specimens,-have induced the formation of a society, combining all the desiderata, to be called "The British National Flora, and Naturalist's Corresponding Society." We have received a prospectus of the new institution, of which the foregoing is an ex-. tract. Parties interested should apply for information to Douglas H..Campbell, Hon. Sec., St. Chloe Grange, near Stroud.
135-Insects, to kill. W. H. L.-Coleoptera may be killed for preservation by immersion in alcohol, or in boiling water. They should not be exposed to the latter more than four seconds. Orthoptera and Hemiptera should be killed by the same means, or by being laid upon bruised laurel leaves, or by being exposed to the vapour of creosote. Neuroptera should be killed py piercing them with a pin dipped in a strong solution of oxalic acid. Hymenoptera may be killed in the same manner-the smaller species by pressure on the thorax, or by the fumes of laurel leaves, or lucifer matches. Lepidoptera may be killed by the same means as Hymenoptera.
136-Reflecting Telescopes. J. C. H.-The refracting astronomical telescope is formed of two convex lenses in a tube, and is the simplest form of telescope. In the Galillean telescope a concave eye-piece is used. Refracting telescopes for land objects are a compound form of the first-named, and are so constructed as, by the use of different qualities of glass, to prevent the decomposi tion of the light rays at the edges of the picture presented to the eye. When this is accomplished perfectly, such instruments are called achromatic (without colouring). Telescopes are not difficult to construct, and some of the finest have been made by amateur opticians.
137-Chemical Experiments - Photography, &c. &c. J. C. H., Madras, East Indies. In chemical works where "parts" are mentioned "proportions" are meant; and any quantity may be used so that the proportions are preserved. The best work on photography is that by Mr. Hunt. Our correspondent is not perhaps aware that the actinic rays of the sun (by which daguerreotype and calotype drawings are effected) are least active about the ecliptic where the heat and light rays are most powerful, and that in the hot latitude, from which he dates his letter, there may be peculiarities in the sunbeam for which J. C. H. must allow. It has been found impossible to take daguerreotype, or calotype, in Mexico, Chili, and Peru, owing to the deficiency of actinic power in the sunbeams of tropical regions.
138-Ivory.-S.E.F.complains that an ivory card-case, a beautiful specimen of Chinese carving, is so discoloured as to be unfit for use, and asks for a recipe by which its colour may be restored. The manufacturers of ivory articles commonly bleach it by exposing it to the rays of the sun under close glass shades. It should be previously washed with spirits of wine and water containing a small quantity of soda, and allowed to dry slowly in a cool place before exposure. Under any circumstances, however, carving is very apt to crack, or become unglued.
139-Grammar Composition. C. C. B. The expression "so as that" is common in some parts of England, but is incorrect. In the sentence "I do not wish you to remain so as that he may suspect," should be written lest he suspect." To write with grammatical purity three things have been considered essential:- Ist. Unity of lang are 2nd. Grammatical arrangement of words. 3rd. Precision in the use of terms. Propriety, or elegance, depends upon the avoidance of inconsistent or doubtful phrases, vulgarisms, technical terms, obscurities of meaning, the excessive use of superlatives, puerilities, affected and obsolete language, and upon the appropriate use of figures and ornaments, together with a strict regard to the facilities of reading, and the musical arrangement of the sounds of words.
140-Charity. C. M. B., A. F., &c. &c.-We are constantly in receipt of applications from benevolent persons, appealing to us to assist unfortunate individuals by the publication of certain statements, and by the recommendation of a general subscription among our subscribers. Nothing can be more painful to the Editor than to disregard or refuse the publication of such appeals; but it must be very obvious, upon slight consideration, that, once commenced, there would be no limit to such requests. The Editor is, therefore, compe led to decline making his periodical the vehicle of charitable appeals, whether to supply individual wants, to raise chapels, churches, dispensaries, soup kitchens, or aught else. Energetic action in private circles, where the claims of the suffering may be heard and felt, will, in most cases, be far more successful than a public appeal.