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in the county of Down, and four men were pursued by the Orangemen, fired upon and driven into the river, where they were drowned. In 1832, while the Party Procession's Act. was pending before Parliament, the usual bloody scenes were enacted at Dungannon. - The following year there were frightful Orange riots at Lurgan, Tanderagee, Loughall, Ballyhagen and Cootehill. But the briefest catalogue of the outrages committed would exhaust our space.
In commenting on some of these outrages a writer in the Edinburgh Review remarks: “But the case of the Macken riots is of a darker dye. Here the Orangemen not only were not tried, but the offenders on their side were actually summoned as jurymen upon the trial of their Catholic opponents ;. who being thus tried by a jury exclusively Orange, or Protestant, contrary to instructions from the Attorney-General, on being found guilty, one man was hanged and the rest were transported.”—(7423 ; also Appendix G, 226.*) Thus the Catholics are attacked by the Orangemen with the utmost ferocity; the former try to defend themselves against an overwhelming armed mob, and for this they are hanged and transported. But let us give a few particulars to show how such sentences were passed in the name of justice. The first case that occurs to us is that of Dromore in the county of Tyrone ; part of the sworn testimony, which could not be disputed, is as follows: “Lieutenant Hamton came marching into the fair in the evening, with a party of his own company of yeomanry. They were armed with their guns and bayonets; the country had been disturbed a good deal with party feuds. One corps assaulted several Catholic persons as they came into town. * * When they arrived opposite the house of a man named James Kelly, a publican, Lieutenant Hamilton ordered them to halt, and immediately after that he gave them the word of command to prime, and load, and fire into the house, which order they obeyed. Several persons that were there taking refreshment were wounded by the shot, and the deceased Michael McBrian was killed.”
* Ed. Rev., vol. 62, p. 492.
The Lieutenant who acted in this manner was the son of a magistrate who was captain of the same Orange corps. As a matter of course the magistrates refused to issue a warrant; far from having been punished in any manner for this murderous outrage, Lieut. Hamilton was appointed a magistrate of the same county a few years afterwards. It is but just to say that in this case also there were Protestant landlords who were quite willing to punish the murderers. Lord Belmore received “informations" against Lieut. Hamilton and the whole corps of yeomanry, but it was no use. The accused were allowed to remain at large on verbal bail ; when the time for the usual sort of trial came Lieut. Hamilton did not appear; and he is heard of next as a justice of the peace for the very county in which he deliberately ordered the murder of innocent men.*
Now be it remembered that at this time the leading journals of England as well as of Ireland were in the Orange interest, including the London Times, Post, and Herald, and the Dublin Evening Mail, and Evening Packet. In order to please their Orange supporters these journals used to call the Irish Catholic priesthood “surpliced ruffians," "atrocious hypocrites," "wolfish fiends," &c., &c., while all their ruffianism, hypocrisy and fiendishness consisted in doing all in their power, in an unobtrusive, peaceful manner to protect their people from outrage and wrong; and however ignorant the lower classes of the Catholics were at this time, they had sufficient common sense to appreciate devotion to their interests; and accordingly the more their priests were abused and insulted, the more they respected and loved them. We can bear testimony to thees facts from our own observation; but most of them must necessarily seem so incredible to Protestants, who have never witnessed such scenes, that we deem it incumbent upon us to sustain our statements by an amount and variety of evidence which would convince even a prejudiced jury against its will. And here we are again reminded of the evidence of the honest Quaker, who says : “When the wrecking of Catholic chapels took place in my neighborhood, it was observed by myself and by many others that while lying, unroofed the Catholics, no matter how severe the weather, attended more attentively to their duty during that time than was observable when they had a good house to go into. * * As I passed by these burnt chapels in the winter time, where they had to kneel down in the snow six inches deep, I really pitied them."* • It is pleasant to remark that if the newspapers of the day were in the habit of pandering to the bad passions of the stronger, or wealthier side, the English quarterlies pursued the opposite course. We have several of these periodicals before us now, including the Edinburgh Review, the Westminster Review, and the British and Foreign Review, each of which denounces the conduct of the Orangemen in the strongest terms. In none of these is there any abuse of priests ; on the contrary, each speaks of them in the language of approbation and respect, because, in calmly and dispassionately examining the facts, they could not do otherwise without being guilty of injustice, and thereby putting themselves on a level with the thoughtless fanatics, whose conduct they discuss. Commenting on the affair at Dolly's Brae, which has given that village a bloody fame, the Edinburgh Review remarks, that Mr. Thomas Scott, one of the magistrates, “makes honorable mention (in his report to government) of the Roman Catholic priest, Mr. Morgan, who exerted himself to the utmost to keep the people quiet.” It was, however, no use, so far as the Orangemen were concerned; his being peaceful, and as conciliatory as possible, was nothing to them. As he approached, they cried, “There's a priest-to hell with the priest-to hell with the Pope !"+
*83e Evidence before Committee, 7326 to 7332 ; also Ed. Rer. for Jan.., 1836, p. 439.
While one part of the Orange column occupied itself in firing at the Catholics, we are told that “ those who were in front broke loose from all restraint in Maheramayo, where there was no opposition, and began to burn and wreck the houses, while some scattered themselves over
* Irish Rep., 3709. VOL. XVIII.—NO. XXXV.
Ed. Rev. for Jan., 1850, p. 102. .
the fields to complete the same work of devastation."* Mr. Scott, the magistrate already alluded to, testifies that he saw two Orangemen trying to set a house on fire ; and that, in order to prevent it, he struck one and took the gun from the other. Mr. Tighe, another magistrate, deposes that he saw an Orangeman firing into the thatch of a house for the purpose of setting it on fire, but admits that he made no attempt to arrest him. Mr. Curry, police inspector, testifies that he entered six burning houses; an old woman was struggling to escape from one, but the door was partly closed and the blazing thatch falling over it. A policeman rescued a girl eighteen years old from another house. Sub-Constable Fair took a woman out of a house on fire, blackened and wounded. Another constable testifies that he saw an Orangeman strike a woman with the but of his gun, as she was trying to escape from the flames. Mr. Fitzmaurice, stipendary magistrate, testifies that he stopped a man in the act of firing at a girl who was rushing from her father's house. An old woman of seventy was murdered; and the skull of an idiot was beaten in with the buts of Orange muskets. The Roman Catholic chapel, the house of the Roman Catholic curate, and the National school-house were fired into and the windows broken, and a number of the surrounding houses of the Roman Catholic inhabitants were set on fire and burnt, every article of furniture having been first wantonly destroyed.
We pause here for a moment to remark that doubtless many of our readers will wonder why the Orangemen would attack a national school-house, since the national schools are those established by the British government and over which the Catholics had no control. Yet their burning the schoolhouse was no accidental occurrence. It was sufficient for them that Catholics were admissible to those schools; accordingly they gave them all the opposition in their power. We have now before us copies of many resolutions passed with acclamation at their public meetings, of which the following will serve as a specimen : "That as Protestants we reprobate
* Ib. Berwick's Report to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. See also Ed Rev., vol. 91, p. 103.
the new system of National Education, and that we will not listen to any pastor whom we see to encourage it, or whom we know to approve of it."*
There is abundance of testimony in the Reports, and other works before us, to show that this was not the only point in which they wished to control their pastors. In illustration of this, we may remark that the Rev. Mr. Brydge, a Presbyterian clergyman, was expelled from his church because he refused to give evidence in favor of an Orangeman named Richy, charged with murdering several Catholics, and burning their houses. We quote a fragment from the sworn testimony of Mr. Bell:
"They threatened him ; they came into the meeting-house, yelling and shouting, and threatening him when he was in the pulpit, and ordered him from it, and he remonstrated with them and begged of them to hear him in his own defence ; and if they did, that he was certain they would all give him credit for what he had done ; for that he had acted conscientiously, that he was afraid of doing harm to the young man, and they would not hear him.
“ 6795.—Have you fully related what occurred on the second day? No, not fully.
"6796.-State all the important circumstances of that day? I went so far as my going for a magistrate ; he came and remonstrated with the people, and they would not attend to him by any means. They said, • Away with him ;' they said they would not suffer him there ; that they would have neither trial nor anything else, but put him away, in consequence of his not supporting this man : then after leaving the place they were likely to trample us down, Mr. Brydge and his friends, but we escaped on that day. I suppose I need not take up the time of the Committee in stating a number of particulars that I cannot be precise about, but the rage of the Orange party was such that we could not stand before them at all, nor could we be heard. When Mr. Brydge called a meeting of the Presbytery, the only authorized body to investigate the matter which was complained of, they pulled down several seats in the meeting-house, and destroyed part of the pulpit and windows.”+
Our readers are aware that at the present day it is the Catholic priests that are accused of opposing schools, and wishing to keep their people in ignorance; and the accusation
* Irish Report, 3, Appendix, p. 32. Ed. Rev., vol. Ixii., p. 479.
+ Those who cannot see the Parliamentary Rep, are referred to the Brit. and Foreign Rev Pp. 370-1.