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the Rhine. In 1790, he subdued Franconia, but was soon afterwards totally defeated by the archduke Charles. In March, 17117, he was chosen a member of the council of 500, of which he twice became president. He remained a firm friend to the republic. In 1803, Napoleon named him general in chief of the army of Italy, but he was soqn superseded by Massena. In 1800, he commanded under Joseph Buonaparte, in Naples, and in 1808, followed him to Spain. After the loss of the battle of Vittona, he remained in retirement at Rouen. He was one of the first to declare in favor of Louis XVIII. in 1814. In 1816, the king of Sardinia sent him his portrait as a token of gratitude for his administration of Piedmont, in 1800. He belonged to the party of the liberal constitutionalists. He passed his latter days as governor of the hospital of invalids, where he was regarded with strong affection by the old soldiers. He was an able general, and a humane man. Though he had been so often defeated that he had acquired the epithet of "the anvil," yet Napoleon had great confidence in his judgment and courage. His defeats on several occasions were not at all owing to his own mismanagement or want of courage. His funeral was attended by a great concourse. Eulogies were pronounced by the duke of Treviso, and generals Fririon and Solignac.
EMANUEL RASK. This distinguished individual was born near Odensee, in the island of Funen, in 1784. He studied at Copenhagen, afterwards lived several years in Ireland, and made scientific tours through Sweden, Finland, and Russia. In 1808, he received an appointment in the university library at Copenhagen, and made himself familiar with the most ancient sources of northern history. His introduction to a knowledge of the Icelandic or old language of the north; his Anglo Saxon grammar, translated into English by Thorpe; his examination into the origin of the Icelandic language, which received the prize from the Danish Society of Science; his edition of Bjorn Haldorsen's Icelandic Dictionary, and his valuable contributions to other works on the ancient northern languages, are proofs of great learning and industry. Before 1822, Rask had mastered twenty-five languages. In 1819, he undertook a tour through Russia to Persia, and thence sailed, 1820, for Bombay, and visited Ceylon, for the purpose of prosecuting his researches in comparative philology. While in the East, he collected 113 old and rare oriental manuscripts for the university of Copenhagen; among which were 33 relative to the ancient Persian literature, and particularly to the Zendavesta; 19 in the Zend, and the others in the" Pehlvi language. After hi3 return to Copenhagen, professor Rask published a Spanish grammar, a Frisian grammar, a Danish grammar for the use of Englishmen, and an Arabic grammar and text-book. He held the situation of keeper of the royal library and manuscripts at Copenhagen. He died of a pulmonary consumption near the close of 1833.
WILLAM WIRT. Mr. Wirt was born at Bladensburg, Maryland, on the 8th of November, 1772; and was the youngest of six children. His father (a Swiss) died while William was an inl'ant; and his mother (a German) when he was eight years old. Being thus an orphan, he was received into the family of his uncle, who (with his wife) was also a native of Switzerland. He appears to have been kindly treated and encouraged by his aunt, who, divining his talents, had him continued at the grammar school at Georgetown, despite the pittance left for his education hy his parents. Wirt was thence removed to a classical school in Charles county, Maryland, kftpt by Hatch Dent in the vestry house of Newport Church. From Dent's school, Wirt, (in his eleventh year,) removed to that kept by the Rev. James Hunt, a Presbyterian clergyman in Montgomery county, Maryland—of whose kindness, learning, and affability, his pupil ever retained a grateful remembrance. Wirt had free access to the library of his tutor, of which he made a free use. Having read that Pope constructed sentences and stanzas at twelve years of age, Wirt became as emulous to rival him, as Pope himself had similarly been stimulated to rival Cowley. While Wirt was at the school of Mr. Hunt, a circumstance occurred which controlled his destiny. Wirt with his school-mates was permitted occasionally to attend and hear the pleadings at the Montgomery Court House. Wirt became so fascinated with the eloquence displayed—particularly by a young gentleman, since well known as William H. Doraey—that he suggested to his school-fellows to have a juvenile court of their own; of which he prepared a constitution and a body of laws, prefacing them in his report by an apologetic letter for himself. Under judge Edwards, Wirt laid the foundation of his knowledge of the law. He studied law also under William Hunt, the son of his old preceptor, and afterwards under Mr. Thomas Swann in the District of Columbia, where he was admitted to the bar in 1792. Immediately after his admission, he removed to Culpepper Court House, in Virginia, and commenced his practice, when 20 years of age. The first case in which he was engaged, arose from assault and battery, by three persons, two of whom had been by writs liberated; but the third was continued in prison, becauso taken immediately in execution. To liberate him without a formal writ, but on motion, was the object of the young pleaders; and Wirt acquitted himself so well as to acquire the patronage of the late general John Miner, then attending as a lawyer. In '95 he married the eldest daughter of Dr. George Gilmer, of Charlottsville, which introduced him to the best society in the neighborhood, and among others, to Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe. But it introduced him to a scene of life with which he became intoxicated; and through means of which he was plunged into the depths of dissipation and debauchery. From this untoward course, he was singularly ransomed by a sermon which he heard from the blind preacher, James H'adddl, whom he has so celebrated in his British Spy. The sketch there given is often placed in enviable juxtaposition with those of Le Fevre and La Roche. When his wife died in 1795, and he had removed to Richmond, he was appointed clerk of the House of Delegates, as successor to John Stewart, which situation he held till 1802. He was then appointed chancellor of the eastern district of Virginia, though only 29 years of age. But during his chancellorship, to which a very small salary was attached, having married the daughter of the late colonel Gamble of Richmond, he was obliged to resign, and resume his professional practice, more adequately to support his change of domestic life. Through the persuasion of Mr. Tazewell, the late elected governor of Virginia, he was induced to settle at Norfolk in that State, where he remained reaping emolument and fame till 1806. In that year he returned to Richmond; and in the following year he was retained (by the special direction of Jefferson) as attorney for the government in the celebrated case of Aaron Burr; of his eloquence, &c, in the prosecution, chief justice Marshall, (the presiding judge,) remarked—' The question has been argued in a manner worthy of its importance. A degree of eloquence seldom displayed on any occasion, has embellished solidity of argument, and depth of research.' In 1808, he was elected a member for Richmond to the Virginia legislature; and was soon after elected as a privy councillor, by Mr. Monroe, the then governor of the State. In 1816, he was appointed United States' attorney for the district of Virginia, by Madison, and in 1817, he was appointed United States' attorney general, by Mr. Monroe, an office which he sustained with eminence and efficiency, during the administrations of Monroe and Adams.
Abyssinia and Nubia, 103—recent
Addiess of President Quincy, re-
Adulteration of wines, 341—history
343 character of Portuguese
wines, 344—frauds in wine, 345
Advancement of Society, 227—op-
Affairs, public view of, 185, 379.
Allen on war and congress of na-
Almanac American, 178.
American independence, declaration
American Board, report of, 180.
vol. II. 50
Anderson, on teaching science to the
Baron Cuvier, 174.
Biyant's Poems, 308—various classes
Ages, 312 TJianatopsis, 315
Shorter poems, extracts, 317—na-
Byron's works reviewed, 291—effect
Character of Andrew Fuller, 110.
Christianity connected with science,
Comparison of American literature
Coray Dr. and Greek church, 199
. kish gnvernment,222—Jcsuils,223.
Cottage Bible, 300.
Critical Notices, 1!2,350.
Cushing Caleb's, Review, 353.
Cuvicr, Memoirs of, 174.
Dana Daniel, D. D., on Christian
Dana's Poetry, reviewed, 140—
Dwight Pres., Decisions of, 151.
Declaration of American indepen-
62— true grounds of social state,
63— opinions of Burke and others,
Education, annals of- noticed, 175.
Flint's Geography, 177.
Frothingham's lecture, 180.
Fuller Andrew, character of, 110—
coln Ensign, character of, 113—
^Geography- Flint's noticed, 177.
Hartford Convention, 357.
Homer, the theme of his poems, 20.
Independence, declaration of, 48.
Jourdan Marshal, life noticed, 3P5.
Jurisprudence, present system of, 128
Lanman on jurisprudence, 128.
Literary intelligence, 182, 374.
Magazine Temperance, 176.