صور الصفحة

PERSE'POLIS (n«p<r«'iroA»y, Diod. xvii. 70; Ptol. vi. 4. § 4; Curt. v. 4. 6; neparafxoAtj, Strab. xv. 729: Eth. Utp(rfvo\irns), the capital of Persia at the time of the invasion of Alexander, and the seat of the chief palaces of the kings of Persia. It was situated at the opening of an extensive plain (now called Mardusht), and near the junction of two streams, the Araxes (Bendamir) and the Medus (Ptdtedn). The ruins, which are still very extensive, bear the local name of the CAW Minor, or Forty Columns. According to Diodorus the city was originally surrounded by a triple wall of great strength and beauty (xvii. 71). Strabo states that it was, after Susa, the richest city of the Persians, and that it contained a palace of great beauty (xv. p. 729), and adds that Alexander burnt this building to avenge the Greeks for the similar injuries which had been inflicted on them by the Persians (xv. p. 730). Arrian simply states that Alexander burnt the royal palace, contrary to the entreaty of Parmenion, who wished him to spare this magnificent building, but does not mention the name of Persepolie. (Anab. iii. 18.) Curtius, who probably drew his account from the many extant notices of Alexander's expedition by different officers who had accompanied him, has fully described the disgraceful burning of the city and palace at Persepolis by the Greek monarch and his drunken companions. He adds that, as it was chiefly built of cedar, the fire spread rapidly far and wide.

Great light has been thrown upon the monuments which still remain at Persepolis by the researches of Niebuhr and Ker Porter, and still more so by the interpretation of the cuneiform inscriptions by Colonel Rawlinson and Prof. Lassen. From the result of their inquiries, it seems doubtful whether any portion of the present ruins ascend to so high a period as that of the founder of the Persian monarchy, Cyrus, The principal buildings are doubtless duo to Dareius the son of Hystaspes, and to Xerxes. The palace and city of Cyrus was at Pasargada, while that of the later monarchs was at Persepolis. (Rawlinson, Joitrn. of Roy. As. Soc. vol. x; Lassen, in Ersch and Gruber's Encycl. s.v.; Fergusson, Palaces of Nineveh and Persepolis Restored, Lond. 1851.) It has been a matter of some doubt how far Persepolis itself ever was the ancient site of the capital; and many writers have supposed that it was only the high place of the Persian monarchy where the great palaces and temples were grouped together. On the whole, it seems most probable that the rock on which the ruins are now seen was the place where the palaces and temples were placed, and that the city was extended at its feet along the circumjacent plain. Subsequent to the time of Alexander, Persepolis is not mentioned in history except in the second book of the Maccabees, where it is stated that Antiochns Epiphanes made a fruitless attempt to plunder the temples. (2 Maecab. ix. I.) In the later times of the Muhammedan rule, the fortress of Istakhr, which was about 4 miles from the rains, seems to have occupied the place of Persepolis; hence the opinion of some writers, that Istakhr itself was part of the ancient city. (Niebuhr, ii. p. 191: Chardin, Voyages, viii. p. 245; Ker Porter, vol. i. p. 576; Ouseley, Travels, ii. p. 222.) [V.]

PE'RSICUS SINUS (o TIcpiTiKbs K6\itos, Strab. ii. p. 78, xv. p. 727; Ptol. vi. 3. § 1. 4. § I, fivX6s, Ptol. vi. 19. § 1; fj Kara Tlepaas AiAoffffo, Strab. xri. p. 765; y UtpfftKy baAaoaa, Ag.ithem. i. 3;

Mare Peraicum, Plin. vi. 13. 8. 16), the great gulf which, extending in a direction nearly NW. and SE-, separated the provinces of Susiana and Persis, And the western portion of Carmania from the opposite shores of Arabia Felix. There are great differences and great errors in the accounts which the ancients have left of this gulf; nor indeed are the statements of the same author always consistent the one with the other. Thus some writers gave to it the shape of the human head, of which the narrow opening towards the SE. formed the neck (Mela, iii. 8; Plin. vi. 24. s. 28.) Strabo in one place states that, at the entrance, it was only a day's sail across (xv. p. 727), and in another (xvi. p. 765) that from Harmuza the opposite Arabian shore of Mace was visible, in which Ammianus (xxiii. 6) agrees with him. He appears to have thought that the Persian Gulf was little inferior in size to the Euxine sea {I.e.), and reckons that it was about 20.000 stadia in length. (Cf. Agathem. i. 3.) He placed it also, according to a certain system of parallelism, due S. of the Caspian (ii. p. 121, cf. also xi. p. 519). The earliest mention of the Persian Gulf would appear to be that of Hecataeus (Steph. B. *. v. Kvpn); but a doubt has been thrown upon this passage, as some MSS. read T6vtos instead of K6\wos. [V.]

PERSIS (t> Tltpiris, Aeschyl. Pers. 60; Herod, iii. 19; Plin. vi. 23. 8. 25; Amm.Marc. xxiii. 6,&c; y) Xlipaitci), Herod, iv. 39: Etk Tlipans, Persa), the province of Persis, which must be considered as the centre of the ancient realm of Persia, and the district from which the arms of the Persians spread over all the neighbouring nations, was bounded on the N. by Media and part of the chain of the Parachoathras M.; on the \V. by Susiana, which is separated from Persia by the small stream Arosis or Oroatis; on the S. by the Persian Gulf, and on the E. by the desert waste of Carmania. In the earlier periods of history this province was altogether unknown, and it was not till the wars of Alexander and of his successors that the Greeks formed any real conception of tjie position and character of the land, from which th*-ir ancient and most formidable enemies took their name. The whole province was very mountainous, with few extended plains; it possessed, however, several valleys of great beauty and fertility, as those for instance in the neighbourhood of Persepolis (Strab. xv. p. 727; Arrian, Ind. c. 40; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6; Chardin, Voy. iii. p. 255): the coast-line appears to have been, as it is now, sandy and hot, and uninhabitable, owing to the poison-bearing winds. (Plin. xii. 20.) The principal mountain chains Hons the names of Parachoathras (Elicend) and Onus (perhaps Naichilii), and were, in feet, prolongations to the sea of the still higher ranges of Media, it was watered by no great river, but a number of smaller streams are mentioned, some of them doubtless little more than mountain torrents. The chief of these were the Araxes (Bend-amir,') the Medus (Ptdtcdn), and the Cyrus (A'ur), in the more inland part of the country; and along the coast, the Baprada, Padargus, Heratemis, Rhogonis, Oroatis, &c. (Plin. vi. 23. s. 26; Arrian, Ind. c. 39; Amm. Marc, xxiii6; Strab. xvi. p. 727, &c.) The principal cities of Persis were, Pasargada, its earliest capital, and the site of the tomb of its first monarch, Cvrus; Persepolis, the far-famed seat of the palaces and temples of Dareius the son of Hystaspes, and his successors; Gabae, one of the residences of tbe Persian kings; Taocb, and Aspadaica. The Persac were properly t)u* native inhabitants

of this small district; though in later times the name was applied generally to the subjects of the great king, whose empire extended, under Da reins the son of Hjstaspes, from India to the Mediterranean. In the earliest times of the Old Testament they are not mentioned by name as a distinct people, and when, in the later days of the captivity, their name occurs, they must be taken as the inhabitants of the great empire above noticed (Ezek. zzxrilW 5; Eath. L 3—18; Ezra, iv. 5; 1 Afaccab.S. I, &c), and not simply of the limited district of Persis. According to Herodotus, the ancient people were divided into three leading classes, warriors, husbandmen, and nomades. In the first class, the Pasargadae, Maraphii, and Maspii, were the most important subdivisions. The Achaemenidae, "rom whom their well-known line of kings descended, was one of the families of the Pasargadae. The tribes of husbandmen bore the names of Panthialaei, Dernsiaei and Germanii; those of the nomades were called, Dai, Mardi, Dropici and Sagartfi. (Herod, i. 125 ) It is clear from this account that Herodotus is describing what was the state of the Persae bat a little while before his own times, and that his view embraces a territory far more extensive than that of the small province of Persis. We must suppose, from his notice of the nomade tribes, that he extended the Persian race over a considerable portion of what is now called Khordsan; indeed, over much of the country which at the present day forms the realm of Persia. In still later times, other tribes or subdivisions are met with, as the Paraetaceni, Messabatae, Stabaei, Suzaei, Hippophagi, &c. &c. Herodotus states further that the most ancient name of the people was Artaei (Herod, vii. 61), a form which modern philology has shown to be in close connection with that of the Arii, the earliest title of their immediate neighbours, the Medes. Both alike are derived from the old Zend and Sanscrit Art/a, signifying a people of noble descent; a name still preserved in the modern I'rak (Ariaka). (Muller, Journ. Asiat. iii. p. 299; Lassen, Ind. A Iterth. ii. p. 7.) There can be no doubt that the name Persae is itself of Indian origin, the earliest form in which it is found on the cuneiform inscriptions being Parasa. (Lassen, Alt-Pers. Keil-lnscr. p. 60.)

The Persian people seem to have been in all times noted for the pride and haughtiness of their language (Aeschyl. Pers. 795; Amm. Marc, xxiii. 6); but, in spite of this habit of boasting, in their earlier history, nnder Cyrus and his immediate successors, they appear to have made excellent soldiers. Herodotus describes fully the arms and accoutrements of the foot-soldiers, archers, and lancers of the army of Xerxes (vii. 61), on which description the well-known sculptures at Persepolis afford a still living commentary. (Cf. also Strab. xv. p. 734; Xen. Cyrop. vi. 3. § 31.) Their cavalry also was celebrated (Herod. I. c. ix. 79, 81; Xen. Cyrop. vi. 4. § 1). Strabo, who for the most part confines the name of Persae to the inhabitants of Persis, has fully described some of the manners and customs of the people. On the subject of their religious worship Herodotus and Strabo are not at one, and each writer gives separate and unconnected details. The general conclusion to be drawn is that, in the remotest ages, the Persians were pure fire-worshippers, and that by degrees they adopted what became in later times a characteristic of their religious system, the Pualistic arrangement of two separate principles of good and evil, Hormuzd and

Ahriman. (Strab. xv. p. 727—736; Herod, i. 33, 133; Xen. Cyrop. i. 22.) Many of their ancient religious customs have continued to the present day; the fire-worshippers of India still contending that they are the lineal descendants of the ancient Persians. The language of the ancient people was | strictly Indo-Germanic, and was nearly connected with the classical Sanscrit; the earliest specimens of it are the cuneiform inscriptions at Murghab,— the site of Pasargada, and the place where Cyrus was buried,—and tho6e of Dareius and Xerxes at Persepolis and Behutdn, which have been deciphered by I Colonel Rawlinson and Professor Lassen. (Kawlinson, I Journ. As. Soc. vol. x.; Lassen, ZeiUchrift f. Mor~ I genl. vi. I; Hitzig, Grabtchrift d. Darius, Zurich, j 1847; Benfey, Pers. Keil-Jnscrift, Leipzig, 1847.) The government of Persia was a rigid monarchy. Their kings lived apart from their subjects in well secured palaces (Esth. iv. 2, 6), and rejoiced in great parks (irapdStuToi), well stocked with game and animals for the chase (Cyrop. i. 3. § 14, viii. 1. § 38, Anab. i. 2. § 7; Curt viii. 1. § 11), and passed (in later times, when their empire was most widely extended) their summer at Ecbatana, their spring at Susa, and their winter at Babylon. (Nehem. i. 1; Dan. viii. 2; Esth. i. 2, 5; Xen. Anab. iii. 5. § 15, Cyrop. viii. 6. § 22.) Like other eastern monarchs, the Persian kings possessed a well appointed harem, many curious details of which we gather from the history of Esther (cf. also Curt, iii. § 3; Athen. xiii. p. 557; Plut Artax. c. 43); and they were accustomed, to receive from their subjects direct adoration (wpotrKi/njffij), as the presumed descendants or representatives of Hormuzd. (Plut. Themist. c. 7; Curt. vi. 6. § 2, viii. 5. § 6.) Their local government was a pure despotism; but in some extraordinary cases a sort of privy council was called of the seven chief princes, who stood around the royal throne, like the Amshaspands round the throne of Hormuzd. (Herod, vii. 8, viii. 67; Esth. i. 14, 19, vii. 14.) Whatever document had once passed the king and had been sealed by the royal signet was deemed irrevocable. (Esth. i. 19, viii. 8; Dan. vi. 9, 16; cf. also Chardin, Voy. iii, 418.) Over the individual provinces—which in the time of Dareius were said to have been twenty in number (Her. iii. 89), but were subsequently much more numerous (Esth. i. 1), probably from the subdivision of the larger ones—were placed satraps, whose business it was to superintend them, to collect the revenues, and to attend to the progress of agriculture. (Her. iii. 89, 97; Joseph. AnL xi. 3, &c.) Between the satraps and the kings was a well organised system of couriers, who were called 6rfyapoi j or4(rrdf8oi(Plut. Fort. Alex. vii. p. 294, ed. Reiske), who conveyed their despatches from station to station on horses, and had the power, when necessary, to press horses, boats, and even men into their service. As this service was very irksome and oppressive, the word ayyaptvitv came to mean compulsion or detention nnder other circumstances. (Joseph. Ant. xiii. 2. § 3; Etth. iii. 13, 15,viii. 10, 14; Bentley's Menander, p. 56.)

The history of the Persian empire need not he repeated here, as it is given under the names of the respective kings in the Diet, of Bioyr. [V.]

PEKTU'SA, a town of the Ilergetes in Hispania Tarraconensis, which still exists under the old name on the Alcanadre. (/(in. Ant. p. 391.) [T.H.D.] PEKU'SIA (Ilfpouo-in: Eth. Perusinus: Perugia), one of the most important and powerful cities of Etruria, situated nearly on the eastern frontier of tlmt country, on a lofty hill on the right hank of the Tiber, and overlooking the lake of Thrasymene which now derives from it Ihe name of Logo di Perugia. It closely adjoins the frontiers of Umbria, and hence the tradition reported by Servins, that it was originally an Umbrian city, inhabited by the tribe called Sarsinates, is at least a very probable one. (Serv. ad Aen. x. 201.) The same author has, however, preserved to us another tradition, which ascribes the foundation of Perusia to a hero named Auletes, the brother of Ocnus, the reputed founder of Mantua. (76. x. 198.) Justin's assertion that it was of Achaean origin (xx. 1) may be safely rejected as a mere fable; but whatever historical value may be attached to the statements of Servius, it seems probable that Perusia, in common with the other chief places in the same part of Etruria, was in the first instance an Umbrian city, and subsequently passed into the hands of the Etruscans, under whom it rose to be a powerful and important city, and one of the chief members of the Etruscan confederacy. It is not till B. c. 310, when the Romans had carried their arms beyond the Ciminian forest, that the name of Perusia 13 heard of in history; but we are told that at that period it was one of the most powerful cities of Etruria. (Liv. ix. 87.) The three neighbouring cities of Perusia, Cortona, and Arretium, on that occasion united in concluding a peace with Rome for thirty years (Liv. I. c.; Diod. xx. 35); but they seem to have broken it the very next year, and shared in, the great defeat of the Etruscans in general at the Vadimonian lake. This was followed by another defeat under the walls of Perusia itself, which compelled that city to sue for peace; but the statement that it surrendered at discretion, and was occupied with a Roman garrison, is one of those obvious perversions of the truth that occur so frequently in the Roman annals. (Liv. ix. 40.) When we next meet with the name of Perusia, it is still as an independent and powerful state, which in B. C. 295, in conjunction with Clusium, was able to renew the war with Rome; and though their combined forces were defeated by Cn. Fulvius, the Peruvians took the lead in renewing the contest the next year. On this occasion they were again defeated with heavy loss by Fnbius, 4500 of their troops slain, and above 1700 taken prisoners. (Id. x. 30, 31.) In consequence of this disaster they were compelled before the close of the year to sue for peace, and, by the payment of a large sum of money, obtained a truce for forty years, B. c. 294. (Id. x. 37.) At this time Livy still calls the three cities of Perusia, Volsinii, and Arretium (all of which made peace at the same time) the three most powerful states and chief cities of Etruria. (Id. ic.)

We find no other mention of Perusia as an independent state; and we have no explanation of the lircumstances or terms under which it ultimately became a dependency of Rome. But during the Second Punic War it figures among the allied cities which then formed so important a part of the Roman power: its cohorts were serving in her armies (Liv. xxiii. 17), and towards the end of the contest it was one of the " populi " of Etruria which came forward with alacrity to furnish supplies to the fleet of Scipio. Its contribution consisted of corn, and timber for shipbuilding. (Id. xxviii. 45.) With this exception, we meet with no other mention of Perusia till near the close of the republican period, when it bore so conspicuous a part in the civil war between

Octavian and L. Antonius, in B. C. 41, as to give to that contest the name of Bellum Perusinum. (Suet. Aug. 9; Tac. Ann. v. 1; Oros. vi. 18.) It waa shortly after the outbreak of hostilities on that occasion that L. Antonius, finding himself pressed on all sides by three armies under Agrippa, Salvidienus, and Octavian himself, threw himself into Perusia, trusting in the great natural strength of the city to enable him to hold out till the arrival of his generals, Ventidius and Asinius Pollio, to his relief. But whether from disaffection or incapacity, these officers failed in coming to bis support, and Octavian surrounded the whole hill on which the city stands with strong lines of circumvallation, so as to cut him off from all supplies, especially on the side of the Tiber, on which Antonius had mainly relied. Famine soon made itself felt in the city; the siege was protracted through the winter, and Ventidius was foiled in an attempt to compel Octavian to raise it, and drew off his forces without success. L. Antonius now made a desperate attempt to break through the enemy's lines, but was repulsed with great slaughter, and found himself at length compelled to capitulate. His own life was spared, as were those of most of the Roman nobles who had accompanied him; but the chief citizens of Perusia itself were put to death, the city given up to plunder, and an accidental conflagration having been spread by the wind, ended by consuming the whole city. (Appian, B. C. v. 32— 49; Dion Cass, xlviii. 14; Veil. Pat. ii. 74; Flor. iv. 5; Suet. Aug. 14, 96.) A story told by several writers of Octavian having sacrificed 300 of the prisoners at an altar consecrated to the memory of Caesar, is in all probability a fiction, or at least an exaggeration. (Dion Cass. I. c; Suet. Aug. 15; Senec. de Clem. L 11; Merivale's Roman Empire, vol. iii. p. 227.)

Perusia was raised from its ashes again by Augustus, who settled a fresh body of citizens there, and the city assumed in consequence the surname of Augusta Perusia, which we find it bearing in inscriptions; but it did not obtain the rank or title of a colony; and its territory was confined to the district within a mile of the walls. (Dion Cass, xlviii. 14; Orel). Inner. 93—95, 608.) Notwithstanding this restriction, it appears to have speedily risen again into a flourishing municipal town. It is noticed by Strabo as one of the chief towns in the interior of Etruria, and its municipal consideration is attested by numerous inscriptions. (Strab. v. p. 226; Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 48; Tab. Peut.; OrelL Inter. 2531, 3739, 4038.) From one of these we learn that it acquired under the Roman Empire the title of Colonia Vibia; but the origin of this is unknown, though it is probable that it was derived from the emperor Trebonianus Gallus, who appears to have bestowed some conspicuous benefits on the place. (Vermiglioli, Iscriz. Perug. pp. 379—400; Zumpt, de Colon, p. 436.) The name of Perusia is not again mentioned in history till after the fall of the Roman Empire, but its natural strength of position rendered it a place of importance in the troubled times that followed; and it figures conspicuously in the Gothic wars, when it is called by Procopius a strong fortress and the chief city of Etruria. It was taken by Belisarius in A. D. 537, and occupied with a strong garrison: in 547 it was besieged by Totila, but held out against his arms for nearly two years, and did not surrender till after Belisarius had auitted Italy. It was again recovered bv Narses in 552. (Procop. B. G i. 16, 17, iii. 6, 25, 35, iv. 33.) It is still mentioned by Paulus Diaconus (Hut. Lang. ii. 16) as one of the chief cities of Tuscia under the Lombards, and in the middle ages became an independent republic. Perugia still continnes a considerable city, w ith 15,000 inhabitants, and is the capital of one of the provinces of the Roman states.

The modern city of Perugia retains considerable vestiges of its ancient grandeur. The most important of these are the remains of the walls, which agree in character with those of Chiusi and Todt, being composed of long rectangular blocks of travertine, of very regular masonry, wholly different from the ruder and more massive walls of Cortona and Volterra It is a subject of much doubt whether these walls belong to the Etruscan city, or are of later and Roman times. The ancient gates, two of which still exist, must in all probability be referred to the latter period. The most striking of these is that now known as the Areo dAugusto, from the inscription "Augusta Perusia" over the arch: this probably dates from the restoration of the city under Augustus, though some writers would assign it to a much more remote period. Another gate, known as the Porta Mania, also retains its ancient arch; while several others, though more or less modernised, are certainly of ancient construction as high as the imposts. It is thus certain that the ancient city was not more extensive than the modern one; but, like that, it occupied only the summit of the hill, which is of very considerable elevation, and sends down its roots and underfills on the one side towards the Tiber, on the other towards the lake of Thrasymene. Hence the lines of circumrallation drawn round the foot of the hill by Octavian enclosed a space of 56 stadia, or 7 Roman miles (Appian, B. C. v. 33), though the circuit of the city itself did not exceed 2 miles.

The chief remains of the ancient Etruscan city are the sepulchres without the walls, many of which have been explored, and one—the family tomb of the Volumnii—has been preserved in precisely the same Btate as when first discovered. From the inscrip-* tions, some of which are bilingual, we learn that the family name was written in Etruscan " Velimnas," which is rendered in Latin by Volumnius. Other sepulchres appear to have belonged to the families whose names assumed the Latin forms, Axia, Caesia, Petronia, Vettia, and Vibia. Auother of these tombs is remarkable fur the eareful construction and regular masonry of its arched vault, on which is engraved an Etruscan inscription of considerable length. But a far more important monument of that people is an inscription now preserved in the museum at Perugia, which extends to forty-six lines in length, and is the only considerable fragment of the language which has been preserved to us. (etkuria, p. 858.] Numerous sarcophagi, urns, vases, and other relics from the various tombs, are preserved in the same museum, as well as many inscriptions of the Roman period. (VermiglioK, Iscrizitmi Perugine, 2 vols. 4to., Perugia, 1834; Id. II Sepolcro dei Velunni, 4to., Perugia, 1841; Dennis'B Etruria, vol. ii. pp. 458— 489.)

We learn from ancient authors that Juno was regarded as the tutelary deity of Perusia till after the burning of the city in n. c. 40, when the temple of Vulcan being the only edifice that escaped the conflagration, that deity was adopted by the surviving citizens as their peculiar patron. (Dion Cass, xlviii. 14; Appian. B. C. v. 49.) [ K. H. B.]

PESLA or PESCLA (Not. Imp. c. 28, vol. i.

p. 75, ed. Boeking), is probably the border-fortress in the N. of the Thebaid, which Ptolemy (iv. 5. § 71) calls Uatra&Kuv or n<Wa\os. Pesla stood on the right bank of the Nile, and was the quarters of a German company (turma) of cavalry (D'Anville, Mem. tur VEggpte, p. 190). [W. B. D.]

PESSINUS, PESINUS (n(o-o-ivoDr, n«ffu*oSs: Eth. TltoaivovvTio$y, the principal town of the Tolistoboii, in the west of Galatia, situated on the southern slope of Mount Dindymus or Agdistis, near the left bank of the river Sangarius, from whose sources it was about 15 miles distant. (Paus. L 4. § 5; Strab. xii. p. 567.) It was 16 miles south of Germa, on the road from Ancyra to Amorium. (It. Ant. pp. 201, 202.) It was the greatest commercial town in those parts, and was believed to have derived its name from the image of its great patron divinity, which was said to have fallen (ttauv) from heaven. (Herodian, i. 11; Amm. Marc xxii. 9.) Pessinus owes its greatest celebrity to the goddess Rhea or Cybele, whom the nativescalled Agdistis, and to whom an immensely rich temple was dedicated. Her priests were anciently the rulers of the place; but hi later times their honours and powers were greatly reduced. (Strab. I. c, x. p. 469; Diod. Sic. iii. 58, &c.) Her temple contained her image, which, according to some, was of stone (Liv. xxix. 10, 11), or, according to others, of wood, and was believed to have fallen from heaven. (Apollod. iii. 11; Amm. Marc. I. c.) The fame of the goddess appears to have extended all over the ancient world; and in B. c. 204, in accordance with a command of the Sibylline books, the Romans sent a special embassy to Pessinus to fetch her statue, it being believed that the safety of Rome depended on its removal to Italy. (Liv. /. e.; Strab. xii. p. 567.) The statue was set up in the temple of Victory, on the Palatine. The goddess, however, continued nevertheless to be worshipped at Pessinus; and the Galh, her priests, sent a deputation to Manlius when he was encamped on the banks of the Sangarius. (Liv, xxxviii. 18; Polyb. xx. 4.) At a still later period, the emperor Julian worshipped the goddess in her ancient temple. (Amm. Marc. /. c.) The kings of Pergamum adorned the sanctuary with a magnificent temple, and porticoes of white marble, and surrounded it with a beautiful grove. Under the Roman dominion the town of Pessinus began to decay, although in the new division of the empire under Constantino it was made the capital of the province Galatia Salutaris. (Hieroel. p. 697.) After the sixth century the town is no longer mentioned in history. Considerable ruins of Pessinus, especially a well-preserved theatre, exist at a distance of 9 or 10 miles to the south-east of Sevri Hissar, where they were first discovered by Texier. (Descript. de VAsie Mineure). They extend over three hills, separated by valleys or ravines. The marble seats of the theatre are nearly entire, but the scena is entirely destroyed; the whole district is covered with blocks of marble, shafts of columns, and other fragments, showing that the place must have been one of unusual magnificence. (Hamilton, Researches, i. p. 438, foil.; Leake, Asia Minor, p. 82, folk, who seems to be mistaken in looking, for Pessinus on the right bank of the Sangarius. [L. S.]

PETA'LIAE, incorrectly called l'etalia (n«ToAlo) by Strubo (x. p. 444), small islands off the coast of Euboea, at the entrance of the Euripus, now J'etalius. (Plin. ii. 12. s. 23; Leake, Northern Greec$, roL ii. p. 423.)

PETAVO'NIUM (TlcravSvioy, Ptol. ii. 6. § 35), a town of the Superatii in Hispania Tarraconensis. SE. of Astarica. (Iiin. Ant. p. 423.) [T.H.D.]

PETE'LIAorPETI'UA(n«rijAfa: Eth. Xlern\7vos, Petelinus: Strongolt), an ancient city of Bruttium, situated about 12 miles N. of Crotona, and 3 miles from the E. coast of the peninsula. According to the Greek traditions it was a very ancient city, founded by Philoctetes after the Trojan War. (Strab. vi. p. 254; Virg. A en. iii. 401; Serv. ad &>c.) This legend probably indicates that it was really a town of the Chones, an Oenotrian tribe; as the foundation of Chone, in the same neighbourhood, was also ascribed to Philoctetes- It was only a small place (Virg. L c), but in a strong situation. We have no account of its receiving a Greek colony, nor is its name ever mentioued among the Greek cities of this part of Italy; but, like so many of the Oenotrian towns, became to a great extent Helleniscd or imbued with Greek culture and manners. It was undoubtedly for a long time subject to Crotona, and comprised within the territory of that city; and probably for this reason, its name is never mentioned during the early history of Magna Graecia. But after the irruption of the Lucanians, it fell into the hands of that people, by whom it was strongly fortified, and became one of their most important strongholds. (Strab. I. c.) It is apparently on this account, that Strabo calls it "the metropolis of the Lucanians," though it certainly was not included in Lucania as the term was understood in his day. Petelia first became conspicuous in history during the Second Punic War, when its citizens remained faithful to the Roman alliance, notwithstanding the general defection of the Bruttians around them, B. C. 216. They were in consequence besieged by the Bruttians as well as by a Carthaginian force under Hiinilco: but though abandoned to their fate by the Roman senate, to whom they had in vain sued for assistance, they made a desperate resistance; and it was not till after a siege of several months, in which they had suffered the utmost extremities of famine, that they were at length compelled to surrender. (Liv. xxiii. 20, 30; Polyb. vii. I; Appian, Annib. 29; Frontin. Strat. It. 5. § 18 j Val. Max. vi. 6, ext. § 2; Sil Ital. xii. 431.) The few inhabitants who escaped, were after the close of the war restored by the Romans to their native town (Appian, L a), and were doubtless treated with especial favour; so that Petelia rose again to a prosperous condition, and in the days of Strabo was one of the few cities of Bruttium that was still tolerably flourishing and populous. (Strab. vi. p. 254.) We learn from inscriptions that it still continued to be a flourishing municipal town under the Roman Empire (Orell. Inter. 137, 3678, 3939 ; Mommsen, Inter, R. N. pp. 5, 6): it is mentioned by all the geographers and its name is still found in the Tabula, which places it on the road from Thurii to Crotona. (Mel. ii- 4. § 8 ; Plin. iii. 10. s. 15; Ptol. iii. 1. § 75; Tab. Pent.') But we are unable to trace its history further: its identification with Strongoli is, however, satisfactorily made out by the inscriptions which have been found in the latter city. Strongoli is an episcopal see, with about 7000 inhabitants: its situation on a lofty and rugged hill, commanding the plain of the Nieto (Neaethus), corresponds with the accounts of Petelia, which is represented as occupying a position of great natural strength. There are no ruins of the ancient city, but numerous

minor objects of antiquity have been found on the spot, besides the inscriptions above referred to.

The existence of a second town of the name of Petelia in Lucania, which has been admitted by several writers, rests mainly on the passage of Strabo where he calls Petelia the metropolis of Lucania; but he is certainly there speaking of the well-known city of the name, which was undoubtedly in Bruttium. The inscriptions published by Antonini, to prove that there was a town of this name in the mountains near Velia, are in all probability spurious (Mommsen, /. R. N. App. p. 2), though they have been adopted, and his authority followed by Romanelli and Cramer. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 348; Cramer's Italy* vol. ii. p. 367.)

The Petbuxi Montes (ra IlenjXiva 6fnj), mentioned by Plutarch (Cross. 11), to which Spartacus retired after his defeat by Crassus, are evidently the rugged group of the Apennines S. of the Crathis, between Petelia and C onsen tia. [E. H. B.]

PETEON (nerew: Eth. rierewvioy), a town of Boeotia, mentioned by Homer (IL ii. 500), was situated near the road from Thebes to Anthedon. (Strab. ix. p. 410.) Strabo contradicts himself in the course of the same page (I. c.), in one passage placing Peteon in the Thebais, and in another in the Haliartia. (Comp. Plut. Narr. Am. 4; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; Steph. B. s. v.*) The position of Peteon is uncertain. Leuke supposes it may be represented by some ancient remains at the southern extremity of the lake Paralimni. (Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 320.)

PETINESCA, in the country of the Helvetii, is placed in the Itins. between Aventicum (Avenches) and Salodumm (Solothurn)\ at the distance of xiii. in the Anton. It in. from Aventicum ana xiiii. in the Table; and at the distance of x. from Salodurum in both the Itineraries. Some geographers have placed Petinesca at a place named Biiren; but the distance does not agree with that given by the Itins. between Petinesca and Salodurum, as D'Anville observes, who also says that the position of Bietine (BUI) corresponds to the ancient numbers, if we take Ihem to indicate Gallic leagues. Cluver also placed Petinesca at BieL [G. L.]

PETITARUS. [achelous.]

PETOVIO (uot6€iov, or Tlaramov, Ptol. ii. 16. § 4: Pettau), also called Poetovio (am. Ant. p. 262; and in inscriptions ap. Orelli, n. 3592), Patavio, and Petaviona, was an important town in Upper Pannonia, on the river Dravni and the frontiers of Noricum. In inscriptions it is called a Roman colony, and bears the surname of Ulpia; whence it may be inferred that it received Roman colomste from either Trajan or Hadrian, who probably also extended the place. Its importance is sufficiently attested by the fact that it was the station of the Legio Xiii. Gemina, and that an imperial pal&c* existed outside its walls. (Tac. Bint, iii. 1; Amm. Marc. xiv. 37 ; It. Uieros. p. 561 ; Geogr. Rav. iv. 19.) The modern town of Pettau is situated on the left bank of the Drave; and as coins, inscriptions, and other ancient remains are found only on the opposite side, it is probable that the ancient IVtovio was situated on the right bank opposite to the modern Pettau. (Comp. K. Mayer, Versuck u6er Steyermarki&che Alterthumer, Griiz, 1782, 4to.; Muchar, Noricum. L p. 364.) [L. S.j

PETRA (neTpa), M rock," the name of several towns. I. In Europe. 1. Petra Pertusa, in Umbria. [interciba.]

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