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A.M., LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., AND M.R.I.A.,

one of the Eight Associates of the Imperial Institute of France—Officer of the Legion of Honour—
Chevalier of the Prussian Order of Merit of Frederick the Great—Honorary or Corresponding
Member of the Academies of St. Petersburg, Vienna, Berlin, Turin, Copenhagen,
Stockholm, Munich, Göttingen, Brussels, Haerlem, Erlangen, Canton de
Vaud, Modena, Florence, Venice, Washington, New York, Boston,
Quebec, Cape Town, etc. etc.; and Principal and Vice-
Chancellor of the University of Edinburgh.

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V () L. II.

ED IN B U R G H :
El) MONSTON AND I) () U (, L.A.S.

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Ergo vivida vis animi pervicit, et extra

Processit longe flammantia moenia mundi:

Atque omne immensum paraśravit mente animoque. Irror Trus. Tib. i. 1.73.

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Nicolas Facio de Duillier attacks Leibnitz—Leibnitz appeals to Newton—He

reviews Newton’s “Quadrature of Curves,” and accuses him of Plagiarism

—Newton's opinion of the Review—Dr. Keill defends Newton as the true

inventor of Fluxions, and apparently retorts the charge of Plagiarism on

Leibnitz, who complains to the Royal Society—Keill explains his defence—

The Royal Society approves of his explanation—Leibnitz calls Keill an

upstart, and begs the Royal Society to silence him—The Society appoints a

_ Committee to inquire into the claims of Leibnitz and Newton—The Com-

mittee report to the Society, who publish the result in the “Commercium

Epistolicum"—Instigated by Leibnitz, John Bernoulli attacks the Report,

and asserts, in a private Letter to Leibnitz, that he was the first inventor

of the new Calculus—Leibnitz circulates this Letter in a Charta Wolans,

and gives up Bernoulli as the author of it—Keill replies to this Letter, and

attacks Bernoulli as its author, who solemnly denies it to Newton—Leibnitz

attacks Newton in a Letter to the Abbé Conti—Newton replies to it—The

Controversy excites great interest–Leibnitz urges Bernoulli to make a

public declaration in his favour—Bernoulli sends to Leibnitz the celebrated

Letter “Pro Eminente Mathematico,” on condition of his name being kept

secret—Leibnitz and Wolf alter this Letter improperly, and publish it in

such a form that Bernoulli is proved to be its author—Bernoulli is annoyed

by the discovery, and endeavours, by improper means, to evade the truth—

The Abbé Varignon reconciles Newton and Bernoulli—Death of Leibnitz—

Newton writes a History of the Calculus—General view of the Controversy,

CHAPTER XVI.

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CHA PTER XVII.

Newton's health impaired—The Boyle Lectures by Bentley, who requests New-

ton's assistance—Newton's first Letter to Bentley on the Formation of the

Sun and Planets—His second Letter—Rotation of the Planets the result of

Divine power—His third Letter—Hypothesis of Matter evenly diffused—

Letter of Bentley to Newton—Reply to it by Newton in a fourth Letter—

Opinion of Plato examined—Supposed mental Illness of Newton ascribed

to the burning of his MSS.—Referred to in the Letters of Huygens and

Leibnitz—Made public by M. Biot–Mentioned in the Diary of Mr. De la

Pryme—The story referred to disproved—Newton's Papers burnt before

1684—Newton's Letter to Mr. Pepys—Letter of Mr. Pepys to Mr. Milling-

ton—Mr. Millington's reply—Mr. Pepys' second Letter to Mr. Millington—

Newton solves a Problem in Chances—His Letter to Locke—Reply of

Locke—Newton's Answer, explaining the cause of his Illness—His Critical

Letter to Dr. Mill—His Mind never in a state of derangement, but fitted

for the highest intellectual efforts, ..., - - - - ! •

CHAPTER XVIII.

Newton occupied with the Lunar Theory—His Correspondence with Flamsteed,

the Astronomer-Royal—Newton's Letters to Flamsteed, published by Mr.

Baily—Controversy which they occasioned—Flamsteed's Letters to Newton

discovered recently—Character of Flamsteed, in reference to this Contro-

versy—of Newton, and of Halley—All of them engaged, with different ob-

jects, in studying thc Lunar Theory—Newton applies to Flamsteed for

Observations on the Moon—And on the Refraction of the Atmosphere,

which Flamsteed transmits to him—Analysis of their Correspondence—

Flamsteed's bitterness against Halley—Differences between Newton and

Flamsteed—Flamsteed's ill health interferes with his supplying Newton

with Observations—Newton's impatience and expostulation with Flamsteed

—Justification of Flamsteed—Biot ascribes Newton's Letter to mental Ill-

mess—Refutation of this view of the subject—Newton never afflicted with

78-107

any mental disorder, . - - - - - - ... 108-134

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