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THE

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS,SCH)KEB,IJTERATURE.AND GENERAL
INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME XXI
' ' PAYN to POLKA

New York
Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc.

34.2 Madison Avenue

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME XXI. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS,1 WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE
ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME 80 SIGNED.

A. B. R. ALERED BARTON RENDLE, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.L.S. _ Keeper, De artment of Botany, British Museum. Author of Text Book on Classification of owning Plants; &c.

{Plants:_ Classification.
A. P. P. ALBERT FREoElucx POLLARD, M.A., F.R.HIST.S.
Professor of English Histo in the University OI'LORdOfl. Fellow of All Souls‘
College, Oxford. Assistant ditor Of the Dicttonar 0 National Biography, 1893—
lgOl. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1892; Arnol rizeman, 1898. Author of

England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.

Porno, Andrew.

A. G. MAJOR AanUR GEORGE FREDERICK GRIFFITHS (d. 1908).
H.M.' inspector of Prisons, l878-l896. Author of The Chronicles of Newgate;
Secrets of the Prison House; &c.

{ Police. A. G. T. ARTHUR GEORGE TANSLEY, M.A., F.L.S. . . ‘Lecturer in Botany in the University of Cambridge. Formerly Assistant Professor Plan‘s: Anatoml

of BotanyI University College, London.

A. H.‘ ALBERT, chx, D.TH., D.Pn.
Professor of Church History in the Universit of Leipzig, and Director of the Museum
of Ecclesiastical Archaeology. Geheimer léirchcnrat of the Kingdom of Saxony.
Member of the R0 'al Saxon Academy of Sciences and Corresponding Member of
the Academies of erlin and Munich. Author of Kirchengeschichte Deutschlands;
&c. Editor of the new edition of Herzog’s RealencykloPddie for protestantische
T heologie and Kirche.

A. H. C. SIR ARTHUR HERBERT CHURCH, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.S.A. [Pl ts
' Professor of Chemistry, R0 a1 Academy of Arts, London. Author of Chemistry‘L gmen '
of Points and Painting; Eng ish Earthenware; English Porcelain; &c.
l

A. H. H. ARTHUR HORSLEY HINTON (1863—1908). _ . . Editor ‘of The Amateur Photographer, 1897-1908, and the Photographic T rodes Phomgmphy' P'do'w" Gasette,=1904—1908. Author of Practical Pictorial Photography; &c.

Pilgrimage.

A. H.-S. SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E. P97513=_ wrath and
General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak. Statistics.
A. H. S. REv. AchmALD HENRY SAYCE, D.D., LL.D., LITT.D. -
See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H. {hmlmus (m P“")~
A. J. G. REv. ALEXANDER JAMES Gilli-IVE, M.A., B.D.

Professor of New Testament and Church History, Yorkshire United lndependenti - \
College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University, and Member of [Plymouth Brethren (m pa")-
Mysore Educational Service.

A. J. H. ALERED I. Hrrxms, F.S.A. (1826—1003). C ' f h R l C I f
Formerly Member of Council and Hon. urator o t e oya olege 0 Music, i - .
London. Member of Committee of the Inventions and Music Exhibition, 1885; ggflwzsigi PM) ’
of the Vienna Exhibition, 1892; and of the Paris Exhibition, 1900. Author of 1 ’ '
Musical Instruments; &c.

A. J. L. ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.

Librarian, College of Agriculture, Comeli University. Editor of the Rio News{Penl: ngmfih)‘ and 510158568.
(Rio de. Janeiro), 1879—1901. ‘

A. Mn. ALEXANDER MACALIerR, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S. phnnology; Professor of AnatomTy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St john's Physiognomy_ e

College. Author of xt Book of Human Anatomy; &c.

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1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.
v

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